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Рубрика: Head of investment banking goldman sachs

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The phase I goal is to develop the feasibility of a portable, low-power driven, cost-effective sensor array prototype capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying pollutants in cockpit air such as fuel vapor, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Our approach couples a new class of core-shell structured nanomaterials as array elements to chemiresistive devices in an integrated system. We will pursue the following specific objectives in the Phase I funding period: 1 design nanostructured sensing materials on chemiresistor devices; 2 testing the array nanomaterials in detecting the targeted contaminants with the desired sensitivity, selectivity, detecting limit and response speed; and 3 build a prototype integrated system with sensing arrays, pattern recognition and device miniaturization.

We propose an innovative microchip array detection technology for combined chemical and particulate detection in the context of air quality monitoring in aircraft cockpits. The proposed technology will be able to identify and quantify particulates according size and identify and quantify volatile chemical pollutant sources e.

This Phase I project will focus on the development of a suite of sensors for detection of cockpit air pollutants including fuel vapor, hydraulic fluid, heat exchanger fluid, carbon monoxide, particle debris and smoke. The sensors will be based upon advances in nanotechnology and ceramic micromachining. The sensors will be based upon a combination of technologies including catalytic and chemiresistance measurements.

Synkera's unique nanoporous, micromachined sensing platform offers advantages in cost, size, power consumption and overall sensor performance including reliability, sensitivity and selectivity. These sensors, together with commercial off the shelf components COTS where applicable, will be capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying all of the potential cockpit pollutants listed above. Detection of these pollutants in the cockpit may provide an early warning of system failures, and will also warn the pilot of pollutants before levels are reached that could lead to pilot incapacitation.

COAT assembles data plane and transmission control plane micro-protocols into a coherent stack, while preserving binary application compatibility with existing applications as well as offering a strategy for communication compatibility with legacy nodes. COAT incorporates network sensors which sense and characterize the network state in terms of key control variables, which are then used to control COAT data plane and transmission control plane micro-protocols.

COAT architecture also allows the inclusion of application utility oriented sensing and control for mixed mode application class support. Our team incorporates a wide variety of skills including the networking technology expertise, entrepreneurial track record, standards development and DoD transition of emergent technology.

SDRC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel networking protocol standard for a broad spectrum of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANET that changes the paradigm of the traditional "wire-based" wireless networking algorithms and protocols. The vision of Network-Center Operations strongly demands the needs for robust MANET technologies to support dynamic missions with prudent and effective resource use.

As a result, it provides the platform on which more robust, more efficient, and more effective protocols and algorithms can be readily developed that are inherently good for a wide range of distributed applications operating under highly dynamic wireless environment. The ASA will help to bring about scenario events that create opportunities for exercising key individual- and team-level ISR-specific competencies while the SIA will assess the adequacy of student responses to these events and deliver individually-tailored instructional feedback.

In addition, the ASA and SIA will be supported by the Integrated Scenario Model ISM , which will manage agent-interpretable representations of CrossCue scenario materials, in addition to storing records of the events that occur within CrossCue scenarios and the actions that trainees generate in response to these events.

Jonathan D. A sensor operator performing tasking, processing, exploitation, and dissemination TPED during intelligence operations is often inadequately prepared to reason about the qualifiers of the information, or meta-information, resulting in poor situational awareness and decision-making. Three core components characterize our approach. First, we will perform a work domain analysis in the context of a realistic scenario to understand how expert and novice operators reason differently about meta-information, develop training scenarios addressing difficulties faced by novice operators, develop a knowledge base of sources and types of information and meta-information, and provide insight into existing training and its shortcomings.

Second, we will design and demonstrate an agent-based instruction system that integrates representations of key human and non-human entities in the TPED process, intelligent training techniques that incorporate meta-information concepts, and that include user interfaces for the trainee and for the design of training scenarios. Third, we will validate our overall approach to training and develop measures for trainee assessment in the proposed system.

We will leverage our team's expertise in sensor fusion systems, meta-information concepts, and training system development to rapidly demonstrate EMITS. The overall approach will use COTS language specific NLP parsers, lexicons, semantic processing, thematic role assignment, semantic heuristics, single semantic representation and word sense disambiguation techniques to rapidly train systems for the subtleties mentioned above for multiple languages and environments.

With the ongoing war against terrorism, understanding the subtleties of Arabic is a key requirement for U. The prototype system will train on text from emails, chat rooms, voice transcriptions, memos and published documents that will be put in a document repository. Paul G. The space segment forms a critical element of our global military dominance. With support for ISR, navigation, communications, and targeting for military operations, we have an ever-burgeoning reliance on our space systems.

This reliance provides a potential opportunity to our adversaries to mitigate and attack our key space segment nodes. Additionally, the potential militarization of space by our adversaries only further exacerbates this vulnerability. To that end, the US Air Force is placing a heavy emphasis on maintaining space superiority by both refining doctrine and developing command and control and decision supports systems for protecting our space infrastructure.

An associated emphasis must also be placed on the warfighter engaged in space operations, and specifically the associated training required by such counterspace operators. Box Waterford, CT The final specifications will support our aggressive commercialization strategy. Due to the Team's intellectual skills and on-going related technologies, we intend to produce a game-based proof-of-concept application that will demonstrate the value and technical validity of our approach.

The 60 GHz frequency band possesses the potential for secure, low-power, and high-data rate communication links. Current implementations of V-band wireless links are severely impaired by challenges such as shadowing. ViFi's flexible architecture permits utilization of an ultra-wide bandwidth to achieve tens of gigabits in data throughput.

ViFi incorporates advanced Integrated Circuit technology that allows a highly compact implementation that offers compatibility with individually-worn simulation training devices. Both the protocol and physical nature of the ViFi system permits individual security levels. A Phase II realization of ViFi will enable an untethered immersive training environment that promises to enhance the Air Force's preparedness for future conflicts.

Accurate simulation of portable visual devices, such as binoculars, hand held sensors and displays, and helmet mounted displays have been greatly limited by the necessity for cabled solutions to support the bandwidth required to provide high resolution video. As such, tethers on such systems have created unrealistic constraints, not there in real world operation.

Such constraints can lead to decreased training value. The combination of high definition television HDTV development, combined with computer data networking's ever increased demand for increased bandwidth provides for mechanisms to be leveraged to solve the tethered portable device issues in simulation. Selecting the proper technologies for simulation, adapting them for optimization of simulation effectiveness, and creating a flexible platform to support designs of both today and future enhancements is essential to solving the tethered problem.

This proposal outlines the tasks required to analyze the available consumer technologies and leverage current SBIR developments to enhance their performance to meet the rigorous demands to be imposed by high fidelity training systems. There are numerous challenges associated with maintaining high-quality performance in complex operational environments.

For Air Weapons Controllers AWCs maintaining high levels of proficiency is a critical and challenging task because of the complexity of the domain. AWCs are primarily responsible for enhancing the situational awareness of the fighter pilots with whom they are working. Opportunities for practicing skills for maintaining situational awareness are often limited by requirements for full crews of human teammates, qualified instructors, and access to full-up simulation platforms. Thus, assessment and feedback of the AWC's performance is often a peripheral activity for the instructor.

What formal methods of assessment do exist involve analyses of observed performance that do not provide immediate feedback to trainees. The Air Force Research Laboratory has identified the need for an interactive knowledge assessment tools that provide realistic vignette examples to support performance assessment in Distributed Mission Operations DMO. The proposed approach will leverage and extend current knowledge assessment methodologies and provide realistic vignettes with targeted mission element examples to evaluate the individual's application of specific MEC knowledge elements during situation assessment and decision making performance.

The level of fidelity of the assessment environment will address a need for realistic continuation training for Air Weapons Controllers. Information overload and cluttered user interfaces cause decreased situational awareness and lowered performance of the human operators.

Irrelevant data increases searching times for tasks requiring the identification of threats, causing delayed decisions. Cognitive burden on the user increases as displays become more cluttered, which results in increased operator stress leading to poorer decisions. Intelligent agents can reduce the cognitive load imposed upon an operator by de-emphasizing those aspects of a display that can be inferred as less-important to the mission goals.

Similarly, an intelligent agent can draw the operator's attention to high-priority events or situations. ARID agents will be based upon ontological reasoning and feedback learning mechanisms to deliver a significant improvement over the simplistic rules-based systems that represent the current state of the art.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs have demonstrated their extraordinary potential to support combat missions, resulting in their continually expanding role in high-risk tactical missions. The move toward multiple, increasingly autonomous UAVs simultaneously supervised by a single operator, combined with the paradigms of Network-Centric Warfare, creates an abundance of information that must be communicated to an operator via displays with limited information bandwidth.

The disparity between the available information and current display capabilities results in cluttered displays that limit the operator's ability to perceive and understand the presented information, hindering their situational awareness and decision-making. First, we will perform a requirements analysis on a specific scenario to identify situations where cluttered displays obscure important information and understand how qualifiers of information meta-information such as uncertainty, recency are used by operators to reason about and selectively attend to information.

Second, we will design and demonstrate a toolkit for rapidly prototyping declutter algorithms and associated display methods that exploit meta-information. Third, we will conduct initial evaluations to systematically determine the effectiveness of the enhanced declutter techniques.

Kutta uses a proven methodology and input from an impressive list of partners including the Cognitive Engineering Research Institute CERI and the NGA to define the functions and determine the specifications for the development of network-centric intelligent decluttering algorithms. The company utilizes the iterative Rational Unified Process RUP to identify, rationalize, and detail the requirements for such algorithms.

In the first stage of this process, Kutta identifies and prioritizes various relevant algorithmic qualities. In the third stage, Kutta develops detailed software requirements for the project. At the end of Phase 1, Kutta delivers a prototype system that includes innovative declutter algorithms integrated with Kutta's current UAV controller.

The combination of human factors experts, UAV control experience, and aviation knowledge, results in algorithms that are user-friendly, applicable to current UAV control stations, and aware of UAV flight planning subtleties. Photonic Systems Division, Gramercy Pl. This proposed system is based on sensors and their adaptation and interaction mechanisms to fully simulate human reactions to the multiple stimuli associated with non-lethal weapon impact.

The AMSED collect quantitative data from visual, audio, radiation, pressure, and other sensors for the longer period of time typical of the effects of non-lethal weapons than conventional crash dummies do, and will sustain severe weapon impacts. The AMSED will have an open modular architecture, making it easy to add new sensors and new interactions among sensors. In Phase II we plan to introduce additional sensors and increase the variety of adaptation and sensor interaction mechanisms, which can affect weapon impact.

DOD personnel are increasingly involved in situation in which they must control riots and civil disturbances and must capture, rather than kill, individuals to obtain intelligence and to convince civil communities of US friendly intent. Both human and animal testing are inadequate to insure that NLW meet military requirements. In Phase I of this development we propose to analyze and characterize NLW physical outputs, sensory and physiological effects of these outputs on human sensory and physiology, develop system requirements, conduct technology surveys for materials and sensors, develop computer instrumentation and modeling requirements and design a prototype to be built in Phase II.

David B. Dosimetry studies require detailed knowledge of tissue dielectric properties. Previous studies have relied on slice-by-slice segmentation of organs from magnetic resonance images; a time-consuming process that limits application of the method to a wider variety of anatomic data sets. We propose to overcome this problem using a novel method of determining dielectric properties on a voxel-by-voxel basis.

This approach, when combined with traditional segmentation methods applied to a small subset of organs, will provide fully automated, extremely rapid computation and assignment of tissue characteristics for large anatomic data volumes.

In Phase I, we will implement and test a prototype version of our dielectric parameter computation algorithms, as well as initiate development of a data visualization environment that is capable of displaying and editing anatomic data, dielectric properties, and the results of thermal analyses. The Creare team assembled for this project has expertise in thermal dosimetry, image segmentation, data visualization, and software development.

These data are suitable for a variety of simulation techniques, including characterizing the response of biological systems to directed energy. However, these simulations are hampered by the challenge of converting the data into voxelized models. The data requires segmentation to demarcate various biological structures into valid, labeled regions where each voxel is associated with a particular biological feature.

We expect to develop these tools in an open source framework with the ultimate goal of commercializing these techniques by embedding them in Kitware's VolView volume visualization system. Box 66 Calumet, MI Allen R. Voxelized anatomical models are widely used to simulate exposures of biological systems to radio frequency RF and other forms of directed energy. A voxelized model is made up of volume elements that completely describe the internal anatomical structures. Developing a model is a labor-intensive process of converting two-dimensional MRI or CT data into a three-dimensional voxelized description.

This involves "segmenting" or identifying the tissue type or organ for each pixel in a two-dimensional data slice. Maintaining continuity in the third dimension can be challenging. The goal of this project is to create an editing toolkit capable of converting medical imaging data into a voxelized model suitable for exposure simulation studies of humans or laboratory animals. A PDA based handheld version of the device has been created for functional testing that can conveniently be programmed to accommodate interchangeable, multi-channel sensors for specific analytes of interest such as biomarkers for osmolality, sodium, potassium, proteins and DNA.

The proposed system offers an improved level of biochemical molecule detection with accompanying advantages of: small size; comparatively simple detection electronics; rapid response time minutes ; high selectivity; and sufficient sensitivity for obtaining quantifiable measurements in response to PPM level analyte concentrations. This proposal describes the development of a portable, handheld, battery-operable optical reader to simultaneously identify multiple DNA and protein biomarkers in biological fluids for field use.

The proposed device will not require fluorescent or chemiluminescent or other labels. Instead, the proposed optical method will produce a new imaging ellipsometer to offer the high sensitivity and multiplex capability of a laboratory grade instrument in a portable, field-deployable device. The sensing chip consists of immobilized biomolecules DNA, antibodies or other recognition elements and is connected to the sample application region by microfluidics channels that transport the biomarker containing samples to the sensing area.

In Phase I of this project we will construct the device and fabricate sensing chips for biomarker testing. A software program will be written to read the results from the measurements on the device. Methods to stabilize DNA and proteins on the sensor chips for extended field use will also be explored. The sensing chips will be tested and results will be validated to current standards.

The results can be extended in Phase II and beyond for biomarkers of specific interest. Richard A. The monitoring of biomarkers is a viable way to determine the health of an individual, the presence of disease, and the possible exposure to toxic chemicals such as biological warfare agents.

A deployable biomarker panel sensor that is reagentless and could be deployed for weeks would allow field medics to save soldiers lives through rapid diagnosis, prevention, and improved triage all directly in the battlefield. No current biomarker sensing technology is rugged enough to be field-deployable where the potential to save lives is significantly enhanced. Diffraction-based sensing has the potential to be made rugged because of the simplicity of the technique.

The technology utilizes optical diffraction to quantifiably detect the binding of a target biomarker with an immobilized probe molecule. Lynntech Inc. Phase I research will also include a stabilized antibody platform and a multi-use cartridge. The proposed deployable biomarker panel sensor could be deployed for weeks with a minimal of supplies. The technology can incorporate any type of recognition element antibodies employed in Phase I research. Phase II will deliver a field-deployable prototype device for reagentless sensing of an array of biomarkers using a reusable cartridge.

The FPB is based on the integration of microfluidic sample delivery with an array of miniature optical sensors and a reference channel to compensate for environmental effects. The device will allow warfighters to rapidly in real time detect multiple biomarkers in body fluids such as blood, urine, and saliva using a very small sample volume.

The device is scalable to screen in parallel for hundreds of biomarkers of different types i. In Phase II POC will also demonstrate statistical analysis of biomarker detection despite various temperatures and humidity levels. This proposed device uses microwave technology to detect Doppler shifts induced by human's heartbeat and respiration and movement. The device will detect heartbeat rate, respiration rate, and speed of the remote subject to help identify potential threats.

In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of detecting remote personnel at 20 meters by building a bench prototype. Andrew O. Individuals posing safety and security threats, or those intent on subterfuge and deception during interrogation, often exhibit abnormal values of key vital signs: heartbeat rate, respiration rate, and galvanic skin response GSR.

Technology is needed to cost-effectively measure these parameters while a subject is moving or non-cooperative, preferably without contacting the subject and without the subject's knowledge. PSI proposes the development of an integrated standoff sensor that measures the three vital signs from up to 35 meters away by adapting its existing battery-powered near infrared NIR platform technology.

The Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of each measurement and provide a configuration for the integrated sensor that will conduct the three measurements. Cypress, CA We have developed an approach for measuring critical parameters of subjects in a crowded or cluttered environment that will lead to a high probability of detection and a low probability of false alarms that they are anomalous, and may be a threat.

The LADAR is eye-safe, and has a range s of meters much greater than that needed for this particular application 35 m. Our design is based on proven components and techniques, but has not been implemented for the very slow motions of respiration and heartbeat. Urban warfare reduces engagement ranges to a few meters or less. Adversaries may approach U. S, Warfighters face-to-face under the disguise of civilian clothing or may lurk on the other side of a wall.

All that stands in the way of disaster is the soldier's ability to read the adversaries intentions, a difficult task in the best of circumstances. Sperient develops handheld radars that measure heart and breathing rates by measuring tiny movements of the chest and torso. The radar emits a small pulse much smaller than the signal of a cell phone that bounces off the chest of the person under test.

As the person under test breathes and his heart beats, the radar measures the motion as changing return signals. However, the technology was never carried-through to operational capability. In a separate effort, the microwave front-end of the radar was replaced to demonstrate Lidar capability. The Lidar was not used to measure heart and breathing rates, but presumably would be well suited when penetration is not an issue. In response to this solicitation, 21st Century Technologies 21CT proposes Metrics for Influence Operations Measurement MIME , a project which will demonstrate techniques to: measure and predict market penetration, segment a target audience, detect and predict message propagation and impact, classify and predict epidemic profiles, and to detect and predict counter influence operations.

Once we have demonstrated the feasibility of these techniques in MIME, we can begin integrating the technologies into an environment that automates the collections to measure the effectiveness of influence operations, responsiveness of the target to stimulus, and predicts success of planned operations. We will also explore methods of countering enemy influence operations.

The complex nature of warfare today requires a much greater emphasis on influence operations and other non-traditional means of forwarding our objectives. The war on terrorism is not a traditional war in which pitched armies conduct frontal assaults or massive airstrikes precede ground invasions. The success of the global war on terror depends intimately on various types of covert and non-covert "marketing" activities in which we "sell" our goals to important players in target populations.

A major challenge is in understanding just how much impact these influence operations have. We propose the development of cutting-edge mathematical and statistical algorithms for quantifying the effects of influence operations. The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop an integrated bioinformatics software framework for intelligent analysis of biomedical databases, generation of geometrical models for simulations from medical images, and modeling of human biomechanical and physiological performance.

We will develop software interfaces to selected databases within the JCoBi human body modeling framework, correlate the data to existing CFDRC 3D human body models, and demonstrate extraction of medically relevant information. We will also formulate the framework for a novel "top-down" multiscale modeling of the human body that integrates systemic, organ, tissue, cellular and biochemical pathways.

It will be demonstrated by simulating human body responses to typical airman physical stressors such as high-g acceleration, long term biomechanical loading on circulation, and body autoregulation responses to hypoxia. The multiscale modeling of human body performance software will be integrated in phase II, tested, validated, and demonstrated on studies of airman responses and tolerances to stresses encountered during military missions.

We propose an innovative data mining tool to systematically analyze huge amounts of experiment and sensor data in bioscience. Our proposed tool, named ABMiner where AB for Air-Borne is the synergy of attribute-oriented induction, a classification ensemble, and distributed computation. Our proposed tool has three unique contributions. First, we use attribute-oriented induction for pre-clustering to overcome the difficulty of curse of dimensionality when mining a huge amount of high-dimensional data.

Second, the classification ensemble combines a set of independent classifiers in some reasonable manner such that the accuracy of the ensemble is better than any single classification algorithm. In this proposal, we extend and enhance the base classifiers of the ensemble in two dimensions, namely types of algorithms and variations of data sets, to enrich the base classifiers and guarantee the accuracy of the classification model. Finally, we derive the architecture of distributed computation from the idea of two dimensions of classification ensemble for improving computational efficiency through parallel computation.

In the architecture, different classification algorithms can run in different machines nodes , and the same classification algorithm with different training data sets and guidance parameters can also run in different nodes. The information contained in these databases is used to answer research questions posed by a broad spectrum of users ranging from industry to academia.

One difficulty is that, at present, there is a paucity of tools that can support decisions based on these databases. This information needs to be converted to easily accessible knowledge. Another difficulty is that there are many such databases which are currently not integrated. Information integration will enable potent analytics and knowledge discovery.

Finally, there is a need for knowledge transfer from experts to novice users which can be enabled through the use of a comprehensive knowledge management tool set. We will provide such a knowledge management tool kit that will serve as the "LexisNexis" of the biosciences world - a unified query tool that integrates information across many different data sources.

Torrey Pines Ct. Gary B. The Air Force has a need for intelligent tools that can be used to convert information from biodynamics databases into knowledge and decisions. Current methods of feature extraction and hypothesis testing require significant amounts of human interpretation. The innovative techniques offered in this proposal utilize feature-independent and automated methods to facilitate scientific advancement. The resulting intelligent hypothesis testing tool can increase the rate and exploration of data mining, analysis, and feature extraction for data fusion.

The proposed Phase I research and development seeks to construct algorithms that optimize hypotheses through feature extraction. Evolutionary computing is used to find optimal representations relating database features to predictions of outcome.

The algorithms will be designed for use with Air Force biodynamics databases. The Phase I research and development sets the stage for continued Phase II research and development and transition for field use. The technology's applications go beyond Air Force database analysis to all branches of the military, and also commercial and academic database analysis particularly in bioinformatics. The prospect for commercialization for the resulting technology in the bioinformatics sector is high in light of the fact that database mining is a common facet of gene expression analysis and drug discovery.

Air Force aircraft are outfitted with emergency and survival equipment designed for the constant threat of an accident. This equipment protects the aircrew member from the initial insult and assists survival in austere environments before rescue crews can arrive. Pilots undergo rigorous training to learn how to survive an ejection over sea. A key to survival is the ability to stay hydrated in the presence of salinated water.

Current desalination systems are not used individually and have small water to effort ratio. Luna Innovations proposes to develop a one-man desalination system to deliver water for aircrew survival. Luna's system will greatly minimize the energy needed making individual use possible. For the Phase I program, Luna will demonstrate feasibility by achieving the necessary flow rate of desalinated water with a prototype system.

During the Phase II of the program, a prototype for an individual and portable device will be designed and fabricated that will allow aircrew members to dispense an adequate supply of desalinated water with minimal effort. Luna has assembled the highly qualified, multidisciplinary team required for a successful program and has a history of bringing novel research from the laboratory to commercial markets.

There exists a dire need for a reliable, lightweight, easy-to-use device capable of producing potable water for an individual from a saline water source Seawater or brackish. The proposed device should be easy to use and require as little energy as possible from the operator.

In order to alleviate this problem, Lynntech will design, develop, and fabricate a light-weight, man-portable, hybrid desalination system that takes advantage of the synergy created between electro-dialysis and reverse osmosis. The system will operate on both man-power and battery-power.

A lightweight portable water purification device has been long sought by the US military for use in survival kits. Mainstream has been working hard at developing such a lightweight purification device since , and has finally developed the configuration for a small portable device that will meet or exceed all the performance requirements of this AF solicitation.

This device, which uses a patent-pending configuration is discussed in this proposal. At 12 ounces dry-weight, this device can easily produce more than two gallons of purified water per day with drastic reductions in the necessary exertion. The proposed membrane configuration includes an integrated disinfection capacity. Phase I includes the fabrication and demonstration testing of this lightweight water purification device, which includes the capability to produce 2 gallons of safe potable water from sea water in about 2 hours.

Mainstream has been developing this technology for many years and the tremendous commercial potential for this technology is well established. Phase I will allow a full demonstration of the concept's feasibility, and provide performance comparisons to alternative approaches. The size of packaged device is about 30 cubic inches, and the weight 0. The Swing Electrostatic Desalinator separates salt from water by alternating the polarization of isolated electrodes.

The cumulative effects of its innovations in design, technology, and materials dramatically enhance the device's performance, and includes recovery of some of the power consumed, and release of it during desalination of the next portion of sea water. The proposed device has a uniquely high rate of desalination per its own mass, is absolutely maintenance free and environmentally friendly, and is high manufacturable and rugged.

Although distributed, simulation-based training exercises provide an opportunity for realistic team practice, they often fail to provide the relevant and timely feedback necessary for effective training to take place. In this project the Aptima team will combine its expertise in competency-based measures, team performance measurement, integrating data from multiple collection methods, and after-action reviews, along with its experience in Air Force Operations, to develop and evaluate a Multi-method Distributed-team Performance-assessment and AAR Tool MD-PAT that gathers meaningful performance data from observers and participants at distributed locations, analyzes it in real time, and delivers it in such a way as to provide relevant feedback to participants and facilitate speedy simulation adjustment for more targeted training.

The tool will include components that provide a broad range of validated assessment measures for observers, trainees, and the computer simulation involved in the exercise. It will provide the capability to collect measures from these three sources in real time, coordinate collection, storage, and analysis of the ratings, and display the assessment results in an after-action review or other post-exercise evaluation.

The technical challenge of this SBIR is to research and develop a capability which will maximize knowledge derivation from individual and individual to team training opportunities by providing real time feedback to the training audience. We put forth the technical solution for application to this complex situation as "Knowledge Discovery from separate heterogeneous data and information sources.

Operational readiness can be subjectively and objectively measured through the use of automated measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Automation of these measures is now needed to support the vast amount of information available with the use of network centric operations. Distributed Knowledge Networks DKNs provides the key enabling technology for translating recent advances in automated data acquisition, digital storage, computers and communications into fundamental advances that support data analysis and knowledge derivation in complex systems.

The DKN technology will provide the computer science to provide an extensible architecture for the accomplishment of training in the new network centric process to train as we fight. Jeffrey M. The DTC is characterized by unpredictable injections of high-priority tasks with severe time constraints. DTC personnel must coordinate their responses to these tasks in a dynamic, teams-of-teams environment to ensure overall mission success. Next, Aptima will develop a comprehensive CRM training structure and a proof-of-concept training module, along with plans for evaluating its effectiveness.

The end result will be a CRM training curriculum that is specifically designed to help DTC personnel successfully cope with the time-sensitive threats of today. Head injuries and trauma are sustained by military, police and sports individuals where the shock or energy experienced by the victim cannot easily be quantified. The lack of sufficient data describing the peak or time history of the event prevents development of better protective devices and strategies to prevent injury.

It is thus desirable to embed a recording device into the common everyday helmet worn by individuals where the magnitude and direction of a significant injury experience could be quantified and easily and quickly retrieved by medical and research professionals. Commercial-off-the-shelf data recorders are not suitable for this purpose because of cost, size, power, and maintenance issues; therefore an entirely new design is required to achieve the objectives.

Diversified Technical Systems, Inc. The proposed IER would be maintenance free for at least two years and be capable of storing millisecond time history arrays from over 80 impacts that exceed a predetermined threshold.

This data would be immediately available to medical and research personnel in the field or lab for injury assessment and detailed study. These sensors are based on Evigia Systems proprietary CMOS-MEMS technology, and an innovative approach to enable measuring and recording the blast energy, and the impact acceleration amplitude without any need for a battery or any other power supply. This approach enables meeting the small form factor and price-points that are required in the aforementioned applications.

POC's extensive experience in wireless electromyographic and inertial tracking systems to monitor the head and torso shocks to soldiers will allow us to successfully develop SMAS technology. Richard M. Traumatic brain injury TBI resulting from direct impact or indirectly from blast waves represents a significant threat to personnel in combat.

There is a significant lack of knowledge linking the actual biomechanics of impact with the injuries sustained in the field. Simbex proposes to apply its knowledge of real-time miniature head acceleration and physiological monitoring gained from developing its Head Impact Telemetry System commercially available football helmets to develop nano-power Head Impact Technology n-HIT , a dynamic in-helmet measurement system for routine wear by soldiers. Key features of n-HIT are: Ultra-low power nano-amps with dynamic energy harvesting, measurement of blast wave energy to helmet and to head, and measurement of linear and rotational head acceleration.

The n-HIT system developed in this project will allow us to quantify the relationship among biomechanical measures including linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and blast energy, and the severity of TBI sustained in order to optimize soldier protection through improved protective equipment or tactics.

The n-HIT system can obtain the required measurements without affecting the soldiers' performance, requiring additional equipment or adding significant weight to existing equipment. The proposed ultra-low power self-sustaining system will provide power for a minimum of five years without reconditioning or retrofit.

Several efforts are currently underway to enhance the electronic warfare EW training on Air Force aircraft using on-board, "rangeless" EW training. On-board EW training provides closed-loop simulations of air-defense environments for realistic in-flight combat training of aircrews. The training capability can be an integral part of the aircraft operational flight program OFP or can be an external simulator carried onto the aircraft.

An on-board system allows training to be accomplished any time the crew is in the air, providing a low-cost training alternative. Although these embedded EW training solutions have been demonstrated to provide an accurate training experience, there are logistics problems that limit widespread use. Standalone computer-based trainers require additional equipment to be carried onto the aircraft unless the training threat simulations are embedded into a component the aircraft OFP.

Designing additional training modes into the OFP requires the expense of flight software changes and an associated flight test program. To support a low-cost EW training system that meets current and future requirements, there is a need to investigate a ground based threat simulation tool that can stimulate the aircraft EW subsystems and monitor aircraft and operator responses over existing aircraft data links.

An off-board training system should result in minimum changes to the aircraft OFP, will not require any installation on the aircraft, and could provide a centralized threat simulation for multiple aircraft in future training exercises. Lavender Industries proposes to investigate a low-cost EW training system consisting of a commercial PC-based application that is coupled to an existing military ground radio unit. The EW training system will support the closed loop threat simulation by applying threat indications at the appropriate aircraft time or position over the data link, and by monitoring aircraft navigation data and countermeasure events to accurately simulate threat response.

The result will allow system demonstration as part of a Phase II effort. Training aircrew to fly modern combat aircraft is a tremendous challenge. To train properly, US and Allied aircrew need to be confronted with numerous simulated surface and air threats simultaneously. Training scenarios of this density and variety give aircrew the ability to recognize and react for survival with appropriate maneuvers, expendable countermeasures, and electronic jamming.

Additionally, realistic training is required regularly because threat reaction skills are perishable. Unfortunately, threat training opportunities are minimal. The resulting Networked Electronic Warfare Training System NEWTS can be delivered to combat units with minimal or no access to electronic combat ranges and fill a tremendous void in existing training. NEWTS can also be integrated with any number of actual threat emitters at existing electronic combat ranges to create a robust realistic Integrated Air Defense System.

Since NEWTS operates on existing data link channels, it can be deployed at any location where aircraft maneuvering is authorized. NEWTS will receive, as well as transmit, data link information from participating combat aircraft to assess threat reactions. Securboration's technical approach to C2OSIF is focused on leveraging our extensive semantic web expertise along with our COI research and applying it to the practical implementation of C2 application interoperability to meet the information goals set forth in NCDS.

NCDS goals include making data visible, accessible, understandable, trusted, and interoperable. C2OSIF supports these goals by innovatively applying semantic web technology and COI concepts to account for both data interoperability and application interoperability. Semantic definitions and descriptions are organized into groups of COIs to create requirements reflecting the needs of the COI members e.

Strategy, Planning, Assessment, Operations, etc. These semantic requirements describe things such as types of data they are interested in, the frequency of the data needed, format of the data viewing and processing , and constraints or conditions under which the data or processing is needed. Michael C. Upstate Applied Research proposes a technology which enables an accurate, meaningful and semantically correct sharing of information among existing command and control systems.

A two-part information discovery technique, encompassing pre-execution analysis and in-progress refinement, is used to identify and mark up semantically meaningful information which will be shared among automated AOC systems and human decision-makers. In addition, an accurate, efficient data exchange mechanism is used to provide the information transport.

This implementation of C2 information exchange provides both an immediate and a long-term benefit. In the near term, a timely exchange of critical C2 data provides the commander with high-quality decision information in real time. In the longer term, the tools and techniques proposed here have the potential to provide an unprecedented degree of machine interoperability without the need for major systems re-engineering. The goal of this project is to provide Air Operations Managers with the ability to build and dynamically adjust an Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ISR plan.

The output ISR tasking plan must meet the collection requirements necessary to develop the intelligence preparation of the battlefield and gather effects-based objective indicator data. Genetic Algorithms can quickly consider a large amount of trade-offs and constraints, and generate a viable plan.

The system will also work to dynamically coordinate the ISR collection plans with other attack plans ground, air, cyber, etc. To support effects based operations EBO for air campaigns, military decision makers at Air Operations Centers AOCs must be afforded decision superiority over their adversaries. A key element to attaining decision superiority is the effective and timely use of ISR assets. However, a key impediment remains the effective C2 of ISR assets and the associated lack of automated decision support systems.

To fully realize the benefits of ISR platforms and their capabilities and to support the overall construct of effects based operations, decision support systems are needed to assist ISR planning staff in optimal planning and mission rehearsal of their associated ISR assets to support effects assessment. The system combines evolutionary algorithms for ISR plan optimization, with the spatial analysis and visualization and animation capabilities afforded by Geographic Information Systems GIS.

We see considerable potential for this approach to address key decision support functionality required for the AOC ISR battlestaff. The US military is rapidly embracing the concept of Effects-Based Operations EBO , beginning a transformation from current strategies based on attrition and annihilation of opponents through brute military force, to a methodology that employs any and all elements of national power Diplomatic, Information, Military and Economic DIME against enemy systems to achieve specific desired effects.

As the US Air Force transforms to an effects-based form of operation, they require the ability to assess actions in light of their progress towards achieving the effects specified in the EBO plan. This effort will leverage an intelligent agent capability developed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and innovative Bayesian network techniques developed for the Missile Defense Agency to correlate and match observed actions and effects to success indicators in the EBO plan. Our approach will effectively accelerate the Joint Air Tasking Order JATO cycle by providing continuous assessment of actions with respect to their overall progress towards achieving desired effects.

The EMS magic comes from constructing the EBA process and supporting technologies as a multi-stage production process, using an Input-Output model where primary and intermediate inputs the latter themselves the product of some process, internal or external combine to form intermediate and final products.

Applications for synchronous computer-mediated communication, i. Information extraction IE from chat could provide great value to dynamic targeting and other processes that depend on battlespace awareness. However, no previous work exists on performing IE on chat data, and only limited research has been done on the linguistic differences between chat, spoken dialog, and written text.

Chat likely poses several challenges for standard IE methods developed for heavily-edited written text, including: i usage of punctuation, orthography, spelling, and grammar that differs from the written standard; ii high frequency of context-dependent and anaphoric linguistic forms; iii complex discourse structures. In Phase 1 of this project we will perform a systematic corpus study of task-oriented chat in order to 1 determine which properties of chat will be the most significant barriers to high accuracy IE; 2 assess which areas and techniques are likely to have the lowest cost-benefit ratio in developing a chat-based IE engine; and 3 develop initial design requirements for such an engine.

This work will provide a solid foundation for the implementation of a prototype IE system capable of processing chat data in Phase 2. We propose a novel approach to extracting domain-specific, time-critical information from the text of online chat. Tradition Information Extraction IE approaches are unsuitable for analyzing chat streams for many reasons: the text is "dirty" containing typos, misspellings, sporadic use of case, etc. Our Chat-IE system will use a collection of techniques to process a chat stream that is being used in support of an ongoing activity.

Exploiting the context of the ongoing activity will be crucial to extraction effectiveness, as will teasing out the individual dialogues that structure the chat stream. The IE process must also be modified in order to support extraction from those dialogues.

In addition, the results of the entire process must be analyzed to determine its accuracy, criticality, completeness, and veracity. Subrata K. We propose a system for real-time target identification and intent prediction of time critical targets TCTs from limited tracking data. Given the urgency of destroying or disabling an emerging target e.

We assume a high degree of uncertainty about the quality and availability of track information needed for target identification. As new tracks emerge, the system initiates track identification via a navigation through a Decision Tree, accelerated by Branch Prediction algorithms, in search of valid and useful identity attributes, b preemptive, look-ahead invocation of networked Collection Agents to acquire additional critical information, and c probabilistic assessment of target identity and intent via a bank of doctrine based Bayesian Networks BNs.

The BNs assess various track attributes to progressively improve overall knowledge of target identification and intent. As the situation evolves, a Central Control Unit adaptively adjusts critical threshold levels controlling information collection to optimize the computational load, and quickly produces actionable decisions. Our overall objective is to produce a quick and agile system, which strives to increase the certainty of identification and intent of a TCT, from an emerging track with limited information.

Peter A. MSI proposes a new approach to develop an algorithm that uses context frames and Bayesian inference to anticipate and predict track types of emerging, potential dynamic targets. Adaptive Identification AID will use probabilistic approximation to filter and process information that is arriving from multiple sensors and integrate sensor information according to situation specific track models. This is most easily done by citor at random.

When a new item of equipment is being tested for the first time in this fashion, it New Swan Mark linear amplifier, designed to use either Eimac foreground or installed in amplifier. The Swan incorporates zener bias to reduce zero-signal plate current of the tubes; bias may be switched out for the 's. The parasitic choke described in the parts list should do the job for either tube type. One choke is placed in each plate lead near the plate connector.

The check for vhf parasitics is simple. The amplifier plate and filament voltages are applied, but excitation is not. Observe the resting plate current and grid-current, then tune the plate-tuning capacitor and loading capa- may be wise to drop the plate voltage in half with the aid of a variable voltage transformer in the power supply primary.

The most drastic parasitic test of all is to boost plate voltage about 30 percent above normal while the test is being run. Higher-than-normal plate voltage raises the power gain of a tube and enhances the tendency towards parasitic oscillation, if such tendency is present.

Too many turns on the coil will cause the suppressor resistor to overheat, particularly on the meter band. A proper compromise between suppressor heating and parasitic suppression can be worked out without too much effort. Using a grid- dip oscillator, the cathode circuits may be tuned to frequency before they are installed and will need no further tuning.

A check of these should show each to be resonant at about the mid-frequency point of each amateur band. Adjustment of the pi-network output circuit may also be approximated with the aid of the grid-dip oscillator. The output loading capacitor is set to the approximate value of capacitance for a particular band, the plate leads are attached to the tubes, and the plate tuning capacitor varied to provide resonance on a grid-dip oscillator coupled to the network coil.

Settings of tuning and loading capacitors should be logged. A dummy antenna and power output device an swr meter, for example are attached to the amplifier, as is the exciter. Plate voltage is applied, and a small amount of drive carrier is introduced into the amplifier. The plate tuning capacitor is adjusted for maximum indication on the power output meter. The idea is to achieve maximum power output with proper grid and plate currents, combined with a minimum of grid drive.

This is how you do it: As an example, assume the amplifier has a pair of tubes operating at volts. To achieve watts PEP input usually assumed to equal watts under voice conditions the amplifier must be tuned and loaded at the watt level, unless some rather sophisticated test equipment is at hand.

Accordingly, ma of plate current must be run to the two tubes, and the data sheet for the shows a grid current of ma per tube, or a total of ma for two tubes at this power level. Here we go! Carrier is gradually inserted, and the amplifier is loaded toward the target plate current of ma. Grid current is deliberately held on the low side as a safety measure. Plate loading is increased pi-network output capacitance decreased , plate tuning is resonated and grid drive is slowly raised.

At resonance we approach ma plate current and ma grid current. Tuning is "on the beam. The plate current is now ma, grid current is ma, and power output drops if loading is either increased or decreased. Power output also drops sharply when excitation is reduced. Under these conditions, the amplifier is loaded to watts dc input with the proper plate loading and with the currect ratio of cathode drive to plate loading.

Excitation is now removed, grid current drops to zero, and plate current returns to zero-signal value. Now, instead of a steadycarrier driving signal, a voice signal is impressed onto the amplifier. Voice gain is raised until voice peaks occasionally hit ma.

This indicates a "dc meter reading" of watts peak input volts at ma. The PEP input, if viewed on an oscilloscope, would be in the neighborhood of watts or so. Grid current, under voice conditions, will peak about ma. Note that to establish a watt PEP input condition, the amplifier must be loaded and adjusted at the watt PEP level.

This is extremely important; it must be capable of handling watt peak signals without distortion. The experienced operator will find that the combination of grid current and power output indications are important adjuncts to proper tuning. Once the proper tuning and loading technique is mastered, adjustment of a linear amplifier will be simple and uncomplicated.

When these devices came about, it was found that receiving sensitivity was lim- ited by natural and man-made interference 3 rather than by the ever-present thermal noise of the antenna and its environment. This is still true for all but the higher amateur bands. Some of these claims are true, while Q, P others are oversimplifications and not ap- 16 Q february The object of this article is to bring some of the findings of detection theory to bear on the problem and show what is not possible.

Let's assume the carrier is transmitted at constant amplitude and constant frequency. Weak signal cw receiving systems. The two-frequency method is shown in A; the Dicke radiometer system is shown in 8. What we've done is reduce the noise power spectral density in the frequency band of interest. This quantity is measured in watts per Hz of bandwidth. Let the problem now be: given this background of thermal noise density, how can we detect signals and communicate by modulating the signal in some way?

Unfortunately this is not true. Between transmitter and receiver exists a transmission path that always modifies the transmitted signal. Such phenomena as fading, scintillation, Doppler shifts, and multi- path modify the signal in the direction of increased bandwidth. The best receiving system, then, is that which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio snr for the received february Gp A filter that maximizes the ratio of signal power to noise power is commonly called a matched filter.

Such a filter for the above case would be one with a response approximately as wide as the signal spectrum; however, the exact frequency response of the filter is similar to the power spectrum curve of the signal being received. Besides, the snr is not too sensitive to changes in the shape of the filter curve. Typically, the output of the filter is then displayed on a chart recorder or scope.

Electronic digital filter. Can anything be done to improve snr using additional processing? Yes, but the price paid for improved detection capability is a drastic increase in time-to-detection. The additional processing techniques are called postdetection integration. Basically, they all involve reading the longterm value of the noise and thereby detecting small increases of power caused by the presence of extremely low-level signals. They are nonlinear systems, and the output signal-to-noise ratio is not proportional to the input signal amplitude.

The implementation of posldetection systems is always to rectify the i-f, rf, or audio in a heterodyne receiver and smooth the resulting dc in a low-pass filter. The time-to-detection can go clear out of sight before there is a significant output signal-to-noise ratio or improvement in sensitivity.

While the equation is exact, it has to be applied to a system with care. To be exact you must integrate over a period of time. The low-pass filter bandwidth in a system involving a recorder and a human observer is really the combination of the electrical filter and the brain of the observer looking at the chart.

As a point of reference estimate that the signal path contributes about 10 to 20 Hz of additional bandwidth on amplitude modulation. As an example, a cw system designed for highest sensitivity on moon echoes would use a predetection filter with bandwidth appropriate to the band used 20 Hz on , followed by a postdetection in- Regenerative audio filter.

Transistors a1 and Q2 are high-gain silicon npn units. C2-about 0. This is the technique used by radio astronomers. For cw use it's more difficult to implement and no better in sensitivity. See fig. A disadvantage of the Dicke system is that it can't discriminate against radar interference. The two-frequency technique does discriminate, because the radar pulse adds to both channels equally if they have the 5ame bandwidth.

There are several possible methods: 1. Use a circuit similar to a Q multiplier, but at audio frequencies. This requires wellregulated supplies and a temperature-stable transistor circuit. Any transistor oscillator circuit will do if adjusted for class-a operation and if the feedback is adjusted to a point just before oscillation.

This is the optimum technique, and no fancy gadgets or trick circuits can do better than that. Since the noise output from the two filters adds, while the dc component cancels, the snr of this system is 3 db worse than that with the single i-f filter.

This is well worthwhile, though, to obtain system stability. A less-popular technique is to 2. Use a passive RC circuit; with good components and regulated supplies, this circuit is capable of about -Hz bandwidth. This is the ac equivalent of a synchronous detector.

Their resonant frequency is that of the ac source driving them. Some care is required in layout to avoid coupling the oscillator output into the amplifier input. Their Q depends on the basic cutoff frequency; the lower the cutoff frequency, the higher the Q.

This network can't oscillate by itself. Use a synchronous detector followed by a low-pass filter. This is equivalent to another heterodyne process, translating the high audio frequencies to near dc, where they can be filtered without high-q devices. This is a february. At MHz, Hz bandwidth is probably as low as you can go and be sure the carrier is centered in the passband. At two meters a system of a few Hz bandwidth should be practical.

On moon echoes it is about 3 to 6 db more sensitive than the human ear, with a 0. Can anything be gained by transmitting a high ratio of peak-to-average power? The answer is a qualified "yes" for the relatively low power in amateur transmissions. Both pulsed and cw radars perform identically with respect to maximum range and timeto-detection if both use the same average power. However, for very high average power, transmission lines and antennas can't support the energy without breakdown.

For these reasons new, long-range, highperformance radars use the cw mode. Range and range rate data are obtained bv pulse compression at the receiver. These radars are sometimes called "chirp radars. At the receiver the long pulse goes into a special filter that has a delay which also changes linearly with frequency to gcnerate a short, high-peak power pulse. This overcomes the peak power limitations of the antenna and feedlines. These filters are very critical and are not yet within the realm of amateur work.

To show the equivalence of the cw and pulsed modes, let me go through an example. Assume two transmitters of equal average power output, no path modulation, and both transmitters operating for a -second interval. Allowable time-to-detection is one second.

Since we have an allowable "waiting time" of one second, corresponding to an information rate of one bit per second, the best pulse repetition rate is one pulse per second, because signal power is maximized in each pulse. The optimum cw bandwidth for a l-second "long" pulse is 1 Hz. This is again the bandwidth of a matched filter. For the pulsed transmitter, the bandwidth required for maximum i-f snr varies proportionally with the peak power and inversely with the pulse length.

As the noise power increases in the i-f bandwidth, the i-f snr is constant for any pulse length between zero and one second. On the surface one might think that pulse transmission can offer a tremendous increase in snr for a given average power level.

Short-duration, high-power pulses could be used in conjunction with a gate to remove the noise during quiescent periods, resulting in a high snr during gate- on periods. For the MHz system, we arrived at a bandwidth of 50 Hz for optimum detec- tion. On the basis of information rate, however, we could live with a system transmitting one bit per second. For these conditions, then, a system transmitting one pulse per second with a pulse width of 20 milli- seconds would be about optimum.

This sys- tem would have a dB improvement over the cw threshold. However, this does show what is possible. The mode would be legal on MHz and higher bands. The bandwidth of this system is no larger than that required for high-speed cw. The moon is of considerable size, and if a short pulse is sent up, the pulse will arrive at different points on the moon at different times. The reflected pulse is therefore stretched out in time.

Versatile postdetection system used at WBM. The positions of S1 are A, low sensitivity, fast response 0. D is the echo accumulator position. How- ever, in the absence of hard facts relating to the phase coherence of the moon at these frequencies, this must await expert opinion.

However, properly defined and stated, it is a closed subject. For amateur purposes we are interested in a system that requires the lowest amount of signal power at the receiver for good voice intelligibility; not high fig. Some possible transmission modes to consider are single sideband suppressed carrier, a-m, narrowband fm, wideband fm, pulse code modulation, pulse amplitude modulation, pulse position nlodulation and others.

However, a-m is superior to wideband fm and equal to narrowband fm, on the basis of the same carrier power. Signal-to-noise ratio characteristics of various modes of communication. The price paid for this is a higher signal threshold below which there is no intelligibility. While the noise improvement property of 22 Q february On the graph of fig.

By the way, it's quite difficult to build any system that's better than the human ear listening to an audio note in white noise. The ear acts like a tracking filter with a tracking range of about 3 khz and an instantaneous bandwidth of 25 to 50 Hz.

Critical bandwidth of the human ear as a function of frequency. The human brain is a very complex signal processor that can adapt itself optimally to a variety of signals, but only if you don't make decisions for it with relatively unsophisticated devices like level thresholds, keyed oscillators, or clipping circuits.

Avoid all chances of clipping in the system, and particularly avoid level thresholds as in some popular "black box" devices. The philosophy here is simply this: if you put a circuit in your black box that makes decisions about the presence or absence of signals, then you have presented your brain with a problem about which it has no choice other than to reject or accept the black box decision.

This is probably not too bad if the noise ratio in a Hz bandwidth fig. For signal detection of a carrier in white noise, about the best one can do is use a maximally flat less than 1-dB ripple Hz to 1- or 2-kHz bandpass filter, with earphones or speaker that are also flat with frequency. Small resonances or peaks are quite distracting, as are some of the shenanigans now going on in the sub-bands reserved for extra class amateurs who are trying to work DX on these frequencies.

Narrowband audio filters can be very tiring on the ear, because signal and noise begin to sound alike after an extended february Q These filters are really no more sensitive than flat, wideband filters. Any DX'er will certainly recognize this as a subtle phase shift between signal and noise; it requires extreme concentration, however. Audible detection of a signal, and copying it in the form of code, are two different things.

The signal has to be at least 3 db above threshold and peaked at your particular aural resonance point before you can decipher intelligence. This is because the minimum change in signal strength detectable by the human ear is 3 db. The advantage of the postdetection scheme is that you can get positive copy, whereas the ear can just barely detect the presence of a carrier.

Another point to remember, when using ear filtering, is that the bandwidth of the ear is very dependent on volume; maximum sensitivity is usually at a relatively low volume when copying ssb and cw signals. Carrier and cw detection by means of the ear are almost as sensitive as the best postdetection system known.

They have the advantage of being much less sensitive to frequency instability and tuning errors. However, full sensitivity can only be realized if the system is treated with about the same care as a sophisticated high-fidelity receiving system. A good system should have separate volume adjustment for each ear, some indication of noise level for each ear, and at least two filters of Hz and 2 khz bandwidth.

Optional would be adjustable frequency shaping to compensate for the different response of the two ears. Dicke, Rev. Pettegill, 1. The 2N was designed specificallv as the PNP compliment of the NPN 2N lor use in complimentary circuit configurations such as vhf and uhf amplifiers. This new transistor is very helpful where a positive ground must be maintained and eliminates many problems with bypass capacitors. Other uses for these power transistors are in unsaturated switch applications at higher current levels than are presently available with PNP switches.

This transistor features a minimum power gain of 8 db with no emitter tuning and 1-watt minimum power output at MHz. The 2N uses the multiple emitter overlay geometry and is available in the TO package. For further information and complete specifications, write to Motorola Semiconductor Products, nc.. Box , Phoenix, Arizona february This versatile 5-bander is packed with the performance extras that give you the sharpest signal on the band, plus an enviable collection of QSL's.

Check it out! Receive vernier, with tuning range greater than -c- 3kHz. Separate product and AM detection. Sidetone monitor, plus built-in code practice oscillator. Rugged heavy-duty 6LQ6's. Crystal-controlled pre-mixing with single VFO for effective frequency stability, plus identical calibration rate on all bands. Crystal lattice filter for high sideband suppression on transmit, and rejection of adjacent-channel QRM on receive Fast-attack slow-release AGC in all modes. Universal mobile mount included.

New York. New York februarv. At the same time, this old iron box can be an instrument of torture for the user. Some of the earlier BC's were bedeviled with N the "scratchy dial" syndrome. This is a phe- 7 nomenon of unknown origin and is virtually Y - impossible to cure. Reducing - f B plus takes off seven watts; a transistorized audio circuit eliminates another nine. To reduce drift by ten times, however, the power consumption must be cut by 90 percent.

Bipolar transistors might be used by turning things around interchanging grid and plate , or junction FET triodes might be used in a cascode circuit, as in the H. Characteristics of these tubes at 18 MHz are given in table 1 with those of some replacement semiconductors.

Simplified block diagram of the solid state BC receiver. The relatively low output impedance of the 3N table 1 is not objectionable when used with low-impedance inputs. Because of the interstage coupling, stage gain in the BC; receivers increases from the low to the high end of each hand. Also, the 3N will oscillate enthusiastically at any frequency up to MHz as found out.

The extra resistors and capacitors in the circuit are mainly to kill various sorts of vhf parasitics. L fig. Schematic diagram of the solid-state BC Coils in the rf section are shown for one band only; bandswitch shaft end should be grounded with a spring to remove MHz birdies.

Polarized capacitors less than 2SyF are tantalum types D or CS13 ; aluminum electrolytics are ok if not used for agc or audio coupling. Because the semiconductor triode noise is lower than that of the 6K7, the measured noise figure of the modified receiver was somewhat better than the original, even though there wasn't always a peak in noise as the antenna trimmer was turned.

Gain control is provided by changing the bias on the second gate. There's no chance of rectified current causing the whole receiver to hlock when the rf stage conducts a common cause of receiver overload. A triode FET can replace the mlxer. The conversion gain is a function of the available oscillator drive power. With enough injection the mixer gain could be ten times that of the original. To replace the 6C5 oscillator a low-transconductance triode FET is needed, as discussed below.

Of course the second oscillator would have been put on the high side. Think where the image would be if it were on the low side. However, had some kHz mechanical filters on hand. The point of thi5 conversion was, after all, to use the six-hand, twenty-four-coil tuning appara- 28 fehruary 19h'. Everything fits inside easily.

Aside from obvious advantages if you are near strong TV stations am , there are also less "birdies" when the receiver is used with a vhf converter. There is a protective diode clamp on the antenna coil. A type N of any manufacture will have low loss at 12 volts of reverse bias. The added capacitance is about 1 pf.

The change of drain iplate current in the first rf stage is used to indicate signal strength. Because of the slope of the 3N control characteristic, the meter scale is non- linear in db, even with the diode in the circuit. Other approaches, including a separate signal indicator channel, were less satis- factory. Editor february. The GC5 ran at around 90 volts, with a starting g, of less than 2 millimhos.

The 3N12G was used with the second gate substrate and case hooked to source. The 15k mixer cathode resistor, also inside that box, probably would be satisfactory without change, although mixer FET's having very high, would be more suitable in that case. The 3. The or ohm resistor in series with the gate lead of the oscillator can be put in between the octal socket pin 5 and the transistor socket mixer The mixer proved to be rather critical as to the FET that was used.

For type MPF the, range is 1 to 5 ma; for the 2N it is 2 to 20 ma. Still higher ld8, units had low gain and were noisy in this socket. Other places in the recelver are not so finicky in this respect. A few calculations show that three very high-q tuned circuits will reject the nearest spurious response khz , but four tuned circuits of moderate Q will do even better.

For details on how to adjust the coupling using a Q-meter, see reference 2. The "tee" of capacitors hetween the cans is used in setting up the gain, as the coupling factor between pairs is much less than critical. The shunt capacitance is that of the coax running from the rf board to the second converter module.

The values were juggled to get best operation with the FET's and crystal had. With my setup, the oscillator drain swing was about 9 V p-p, and the mixer developed no rectified bias across the k resistor. Strong second oscillator harmonics were found at the mixer output and on the B- supply lead beyond the feed-through capacitor.

The additional rf choke and capacitor fixed the power-lead leakage, while the natural attenuation of the mechanical filter is enough protection for the output harmonics, ' llur is a common classification parameter, measured by shorting the gate to source and applying 5 to 10 V to the drain. Thus by definition, d, is the drain-to-source current when the gate-to-source voltage is zero. Second mixer output is parallel-fed via a choke and blocking capacitor to the filter switch.

Either the 3-kHz or the 8-kHz bandpass filter may be selected, the other one having its terminals shorted. The ouput section of the switch 8 pole, 5 position goes to a feedback amplifier that has a high-impedance input and a gain of ten, followed by a potentiometer that permits the background noise level to be adjusted without modifying the agc action.

The range of the control is 23 db. The stage following the gain control is the third 3N The two i-f cans shape the top of the passband in the 8-kHz bandwidth a-m position to get the best weak-signal a-m reception. This seems to want a rounded top, symmetrical, down about 6 to 10 db at 3-kHz off center. The front-panel switch selects five combinations of bandwidth and detection, as per table 2.

The agc source for a-m is the diode detector, but for sideband and CW reception agc is derived from rectified audio, so that the effect of audio selectivity is included. The second-gate control voltage on the three 3Nfs varies from plus three or four volts with no signal to negative two or three on very strong signals. The loop gain is high, giving a dynamic range of 40 db. The first volt of bias change makes very little change in receiver gain, but the squelch operates reliably at that point.

A negative voltage supply makes the am- table 2. Agc-off-mvc functions similar to original. Also the audio stage operating point is centered automatically. The audio-derived agc voltage is from a little three-transistor feed-back amplifier with automatic temperature compensation; again, this is from the pnp follower driving the npn stage and a voltage-doubling rectifier.

The attack time is fast for small changes, but the maximum effect from a single pulse there would be worse thumping at the beginning of a sitlehand transmission. This has a bunch of emitter-coupled clipping amplifiers, a rather fancy six-transistor phase detector, and various diode hias networks. All that Chassis view of the revamped BC shows the new mode switch and two mechanical filters.

The power supply and audio circuits occupy the old dynamotor space; the plug-in board contains voltage regulating and low-level audio circuits. A typical transistor radio i-f can is suitable; just use the high impedance winding, padded to frequency with external capacitors and some by-pass capacitors. When the signal was injected after the filter, an s-shaped curve about kHz wide was obtained, with an amplitude of more than five volts peak-to-peak.

The audio gain is high enough so that normal operation is in a region where the agc threshold is not exceeded. Because of the highly nonlinear control function db versus control volts , tapered sections are used for both audio and manual rf gain.

However, 1N's could be used in place of the 1N's as well. The 2N's and 2N's were actually the green- or yellow-coded 2N's, while the brown- and red-coded 's were used for bias compensation diodes, labeled "BD. This circuit provides 3 volts p-p output with 1 millivolt input. A stereo amplifier control should be adequate.

The reserve gain pot in the kHz i-f amplifier could have either a linear or audio taper such as used in transistor radios. The first type costs fifty cents; the second eighty. The whole count is 50 transistors and FET's, 16 various diodes, and one integrated circuit. The squelch is in the active filter section.

The circuit is Minimum gain setting must be at minimum gain bias. The high-power transistors are on the subchassis insulated by mica washers , and the low-power circuits are on a plug-in card very easy to pull out and change. The values seem reasonably satisfactory in practice, although the filter performance has not been measured in place in the receiver.

Any other narrowband audio filter of ten or twenty thousand ohms impedance should do as well. Obviously, an extra amplifier stage could be put in the chain if the filter on hand was of lower impedance, as the method of switching makes this practical. The audio agc is based on what passes through the filter, so it can be used even under quite rough conditions. Because the squelch can also be used in this mode, have been able to find a fairly weak though stable signal and park on him with the receiver on squelch, waiting to get a chance to work him.

Higher output than have is desirable when running some converters, but haven't done anything about it as yet. Resolving the overload prob- lem takes effort: care to see that the last i-f amplifier, for instance, is capable of driv- ing the second detector hard enough, so that the second detector can generate enough agc voltage, so that it won't be driven too hard-like n tight servo system. The more read that the more wonder if the Eng- lish language is up to today's problems.

What all this means is that the last i-f stage should be designed for best power output, not best gain. Also, it means that agc can't be used on the last i-f stage. Auto radios with one i-f stage have some rather fancy solutions to this problem. Another device to reduce overload is feed- back. At "low" frequencies under a couple MHz for today's transistors , feedback will hold gain and bias constant despite tempera- ture variation.

Distortion will also be kept low. Audio CW filter with nominal Hz center frequency and Hz bandwidth. Capacitors are mylar insulated. The drift with temperature of one transistor is balanced al- most exactly by another of the same type. For best results, the bias diodes must be placed physically so that they are at about the same temperature as the power transistors. Box 53, Harrison, N. For the price of a few pieces of gear from most others. We believe that you should still be able to get a stack of gear without spending a pile of money.

For performance, versatility and top dollar value, the others just don't stack up. The Statlon Console with 24 hr. SWR nieter, resultable timer, etc. The comblnat! Mail coupon or wrlte Heath Co. Ddystrom Ltd. Please send Credlt Application.

AM-2O6R february. Or, so it seems. But not all of them suit all pur- poses. Sometimes extra demands are made on power supplies for single-sideband equipment-such as wider regulation, multiple voltages, cleaner filtering, and so on. That's why these dc supplies deserve special attention.

First, though, it's just as well to review the characteristics common to all power supplies. What are they supposed to do, and how do they go about it? Mainly, the power supplies in ham equipment furnish dc voltages to operate tubes and transistors in the stages. Circuits may need positive voltages or negative voltages, high voltages or low voltages, high currents or low currents. The power supply generally converts volt ac pow- er to the needed dc voltages.

A power supply also furnishes certain specific ac voltages. The power transformer usually develops them with an extra wind- ing or two; you don't even notice them. Without them, though, tubes wouldn't get proper heater voltages-and lays wouldn't work. Transistor equipment needs lower voltages.

There are three chief methods for getting the exact voltage needed by each stage of a transmltter or receiver. The first way 1s by transformer. By specifying transformer windings with certain turns ratios, the ssb-equipment designer gets a range of voltages. After the ac voltages are at the right values, they can be changed to dc. A step-down turns ratio of For higher voltages, set-up 3 ratios are used.

For volts, a turns ratio 6 of For volts, a ratio of 5 As the transformer schematic in fig. The transformer method is expensive, but it's a practical way to step the power-line voltw m age either up or down. This method is used after the volt- 38 february A drawback is that you can only step voltages down-not up. The power transformer steps the powerline ac up to the highest voltage desired. After the ac is changed to dc, the dc voltage is fed to a series of resistors; the volt- age divides across the resistors, in propor- tion to the resistance values.

An example of this appears in fig. The third way to get the voltage you want is by voltage doubling. This is a trick that builds voltages up in value, but can't step them down. Voltage doubling is done fore the dc is fit to use, the ac must be removed; electrolytic capacitors and filter chokes do this.

The output of a rectifierfilter combination is relatively pure dc. A simple example appears in fig. The dc output voltage depends mostly on how inuch ac is applied to the rectifier. The line voltage can be applied directly, as it is in fig. Ac can also be applied from a stepdown winding, as it is to develop low-voltage dc for powering transistors. There are several ways to get the voltage you need; by selecting the power transformer, by using a tapped secondary or with a resistive voltage divider.

The result is a dc voltage that's twice the value an ordinary rectifier would produce. Where especially high voltages are needed, tripling and quadrupling can be arranged. Each has certain advantages, and in combinations they are versatile. You should consider all of them for homebrew ssb gear. A tube or semiconductor is the rectifier. Nowadays, semiconductors are more popular. The rectifier conducts on half of each ac cycle and blocks on the other half.

The output is pulsating dc-which is dc voltage with a rather large ac component still riding along. Be- The dc output is usually slightly higher than the measured ac voltage applied to the rectifier. The output of fig. That's because the output depends on the peak value of each cycle, whereas the measured ac voltage is rms or effective value. Simple half-wave rectifier circuit with capacitive input filter.

A half-wave circuit is shown in fig. Half-wave rectifiers waste one half-cycle of the input waveform. Both halves are applied, but only one can pass. The filter capactors and choke smooth out the deep ripples, leaving a positive dc voltage with almost ac in it. A full-wave rectifier is shown in fig. Considering the whole secondary wind- ng, each positive half-cycle makes the top rectifier conduct and each negative halfcycle makes the bottom one conduct.

With respect to ground, however, both rectifiers receive a positive half-cycle. The combined output of the two rectifiers is a series of positive half-cycles. The full input wave is used, instead of just half of it. The filters make the output nearly pure dc. A bridge rectifier circuit is shown in fig.

This one is a full-wave system because it uses both half-cycles. The volts dc output is obtained with a sirn- ple volt transformer instead of a center-tapped volt unit. One more circuit that converts ac to dc is the doubler. There are two common kinds, both shown in fig. The one in fig. Consider the bottom of the secondary as a reference point.

The first negative-going half-cycle charges C1 through Dl; D2 can't conduct because the voltage is in wrong polarity. Then, the positive half-cycle that follows charges C2 through D2. The previously stored charge on C1 is in series, and it adds to the positive half-cycle. The charge that develops across C2 i5 therefore double what it would otherwise be. This doubled charge is applied to C2 with each positive half-cycle; the negative half-cycle doesn't affect C2 at all-only C1.

The output is therefore a half-wave pulsating dc voltage almost double the peak input ac voltage. The full-wave doubler in fig. Each positive halfcycle charges C2, because D2 can conduct. The negative half-cycle that follows then charges C1, because Dl can conduct.

Each half-cycle of the input wave therefore 0 fig. Two types of rectifier circuits-half wave in A and full wave in 6. The output S taken across the two capacitors in series, so their voltages are added. The output is a full-wave pulsating dc voltage that's about double the peak input ac voltage.

Tubes used ds small- fig. The full-wave bridge rectifier. Singlesideband linear power amplifiers don't use as much average current as their a-m or cw counterparts, but their demands during modulation peaks are even greater. The range of current that single-side- band power supplies must furnish is wide, then. Three factors about a dc power sup- ply determine its ability to deliver current without overheating or damage: the trans- r VDC fig. Here are two circuits which rectify the ac voltage and double it at the same time.

When a designer knows how much cur- rent all the tube plates and screens draw, he picks a rectifier or group of them that can handle the current. The rectifier must also be able to withstand the voltage that is to be applied. Rectifier diodes can be wired in series to increase voltage ratings. Then the designer picks a transformer that supplies enough ac voltage to develop the maximum dc voltage needed and makes sure its windings are rated to carry the needed current.

Filter capacitors store electrons that will be drawn from the power supply as current. Larger capacitors store more electrons, and current demands don't deplete them be- tween half-cycle pulsations. Full-wave rectifier circuits supply more current than half-wave circuits. Their pul- sations are twice as frequent as those of half-wave rectifiers, so they keep the filters charged up better. Voltage doublers reduce the current a rectifier can supply. Double the voltage, and you halve the current that can be drawn safely.

From a tripler, only a third as much current is available as from the same set of components in a simple rectifier ant1 filter. The larger the capacitance is, the less ac gets through. Also, the larger the choke inductance, the smoother the dc that results. Some typical P-network power-supply filter circuits are shown in fig. The input filter C1 has a lot to do with the output voltage.

The larger it is, the higher the dc -up to nearly the peak value of the in- put ac. The output filter controls how much current the supply can furnish without leaving a lot of ac ripple. Aside from their effects on voltage and current, the two capacitors cut down ripple.

They are low impedances for power- supply ac. The input capacitor "shorts" a lot of the leftover ac from the rectifier to ground. The choke has a high impedance to ac but passes the dc easily if it's rated to carry enough current. When not too much current 15 to be drawn, a wirewound resistor can take the place of the choke. The resistor isn't as effective as a choke, but it works. The diagram in fig. Electrolytics are polarized and must be connected correctly.

The output 1s smooth negative dc. Transmitters and linear amps sometimes need high negative bias voltages, so the power supply must develop a negative output voltage. Tran- sistors, too, may demand negative supply voltages-usually for biasing tubes. The sketches in fig. There's another way to get negative volt- ages, without using a separate rectifier.

This is an ordl- nary positive-output dc supply, furnishing volts dc across the output filter. Dc voltages for stages in modern equip- ment are measured with respect to ground. A voltmeter connected to the bottom of the bleeder in fig. Thus, by the simple trick of moving the ground point up the bleeder chain, a nega- tive voltage becomes available.

Positive and negative voltages with a single rectifier. S a full-wave rectifier. D and D2 supply positive-going pulsations to a large input filter. With volts ac from each transformer winding, dc across the output filter is volts. Some circuits in this receiver need closely controlled voltage. Pi-network power-supply filters. Also, a negative voltage is needed.

For it, the lower half of the secondary winding applies volts ac to a resistive voltage divider, lowering the ac voltage applied to fig. Power supply for an ssb receiver demonstrates many of the power-supply principles discussed in the test. The rectifier is connected for anodeoutput, so it supplies negative pulsations to its filter network. The capacitors, connected for negative output polarity, work with the 12k resistor as a pi-network filter to smooth out any ripple.

The output is volts dc. One transmitter supply uses some interesting variations. Take a look at fig. The arrangement is part full-wave doubler and part ordinary half-wave rectifier. The rectifier diodes are in series merely to increase their voltage rating, so less-expensive diodes can be used. First, the half-wave circuit. On the next half-cycle, when the top is positive-going, they can't conduct. No more voltage is added to C2, nor can it discharge through the rectifiers. Thus, a train of positive half-cycles applied to C2 develops a positive pulsating dc voltage there.

The capacitor is large enough that the pulsations are mostly smoothed out. The output is about volts of fairly smooth dc. The ohm resistor and C3 form a pinetwork with C2. The network smooths most remaining ripple out of the dc. Also, the ohm resistance, with current flowing through it, drops the output voltage for this branch to volts dc.

During the half-cycle when the top of the transformer winding is positive, the volt center tap is also positive with respect to the bottom end. Rectifiers Dl and D2 can conduct with this polarity of voltage applied; they do, and charge C1. The peaks of these positive cycles reach about volts. Capacitor C1 smooths out the pulsations and leaves an average dc voltage of about With respect to ground, C1 and C2 are in series, so the dc voltages across them add. The dc output is volts C2 plus volts C , or volts.

The C1 voltage is developed during one half-cycle, and the C2 voltage is developed during the otherwhich makes the volt output a result of full-wave rectification. Transmitting efficiency is high, which helps overcome the limitations of available power for the rig. The two pnp transistors are switches that alternate in conducting current, each through its own part of the primary winding. To begin the action, when 12 volts dc is first applied to point A, one transistor can conduct slightly better than the other, so it dominates.

Suppose Q2 is that transistor. Current flows through the winding from A to B to C and to ground through the ohm resistor. A magnetic field builds up around those portions of the windings. The cyclic rise and fall of the magnetic field around the primary winding. That's ac. The secondary of this transformer is a stepup winding for developing a high ac voltage.

The output of this winding is about volts ac. The rectifier diodes are series-connected in two banks of six each, called stacks. The series connection divides up the voltage across each rectifier. The two stacks make a full-wave doubler, producing an fig. Mobile dc-to-dc converter that provides volts output from a volt battery.

The collector, being grounded, is the most negative. Q2 conducts more and more heavily. Whenever a magnetic field is expanding, it creates a counter-force that's opposing. When current in 42 reaches saturation, the magnetic field stops expanding.

The counter-force takes over and starts cutting down current in 42 and in its winding sections. This reduction continues until Q2 is cut off by the reverse-bias that's self-induced by the winding. Meanwhile, Q1 was kept cut off by the current rise that made Q2 conduct, because the two transistors are wired in opposite phase from each other.

Once current in Q2 starts diminishing, however, current in Q1 starts rising. That makes current in the up- per half of the winding increase, which raises the magnetic field around that half. The result of this push-pull switching is a output of volts dc. As you probably guessed, the capacitors are wired in se- ries-three to a stack-to permit using lower-voltage types.

High-voltage capacitors are very costly. The bottom secondary winding is connected to a negative-output rectifier, and supplies volts ac. For critical transistor circuits, the low dc output may also be regulated. The power supply in fig. There's something odd in fig. This is the ac-input version of a supply that can also be used on 12 volts dc.

The dc mode uses transistors Q1 and Q2 for inverting dc to ac. They're big, husky transistors, so why 44 february After full-wave rectification, the dc is smoothed by filter capacitors and a choke. The 12 volts dc is fed through R1 and R3 to the output terminal. The zener diode holds the base of Q3 at a steady voltage with respect to point A.

The variation at the base makes shunt regulator transistor Q3 exactly the same amount-becoming that much more positive than normal. Voltage at the base becomes more positive, too, but not as much, because the voltage and any change is divided between R1 and R2. The net effect is to reduce the forward bias of Q2, lowering conduction. That re- duces conduction in the base-emitter junction of 91; that junction is in series with the collector of Q2. And that lowers the output voltage to its normal value.

Regulated low-voltage power supply using transistors as rectifiers. Consider what happens if the output voltage and the voltage at A rises. The base of 43 goes more positive, and the transistor draws more current, reducing voltage at the collector tied to the out- put. R3 is adjustable to allow for aging of the zener or the transistor. Transistors are used more often as series h h regulators.

The example in fig. Solid-state series-type extra transistor, often known as an error voltage regulator.

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