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The EU recession is also a blow to U. Finally, lower economic growth means lower government revenue, which ultimately could also make for further debt problems in the future. And some of the mistakes have been unavoidable, he said. All he was trying to do was find a way to rescue the Giants again. Who will want to walk backward with technology such as this? The government and the Congress cannot do anything against them. Pleased to meet you ivermectin toxicity pdf Iraqis have endured extreme violence for years, but since the since the start of the intensity of attacks on civilians has dramatically increased, reversing a trend that had seen the country grow more peaceful.

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A financial advisor dose rate of ivermectin in dogs Amnesty International and the New York-based African Center for Justice and Peace Studies said at least 50 people had been killed by gunshots to the chest or head by Thursday night, citing witnesses, relatives, doctors and journalists. Which team do you support? AmericaMovil paid an average price of 3. Whereabouts in are you from?

Please drive with caution. Concerns have also been raised about foreign ownership of theU. However, as Santonio Holmes and his foot know better than anyone, looks can be deceiving. The Admissions Director assigns an Alpha Ranking utilizing a standardized rubric set forth by the Admissions Committee. Descriptive statistics, and independent t-tests were conducted to explore relationships between alpha ranking and other pre admission variables for the two groups of students.

Implications: The findings provide support for the alpha ranking system in identifying students who may be at risk of progression issues in the first year. Specifically, along with other well established pre admission measures affecting student performance, alpha ranking may be utilized to aid the admissions process. Pre matriculation enrichment programs can be developed in order to prevent student interruption in the first year.

Muhammad J. Habib, Howard University , Salome B. Wingate, Howard University , Youness R. Karodeh, Howard University , Michael A. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from three cohorts of students that took the PCOA in their third professional year from to Descriptive statistics were conducted in addition to correlational analysis and multivariate linear regression models were developed to determine which variables had a significant effect on PCOA score.

Approximately two-thirds of The PCOA score during the 3rd year was significantly correlated with the PCAT score, the GPA during the fall semester of the third professional year, and whether or not an individual was on probation during their first semester in pharmacy school.

Jason M. Brunner, University of Colorado , Lisha R. Objectives: Electronic exams are common practice in pharmacy schools, whereby, most schools require students take their exams in the classroom. Advances in technology created the opportunity to offer remotely proctored online exams. The University of Colorado School of Pharmacy implemented a remotely proctored online exam program in for all required courses. Due to the variability of exam environments, the school developed methods to ensure academic integrity.

This poster will address the methods by which academic integrity was ensured and assessed. Method: The school instituted the use of a remote proctoring service that uses a combination of technology and human proctors. Students provide proof of identity at the start of an exam and then are remotely monitored. Based on school identified expectations i. A proctor intervenes when alerted by the software.

The proctoring service provides documentation of concerning students and exam recordings to the school for additional review. Results: The school assessed the efficacy of this program by comparing three years of exam data for significant changes in year-over-year scores. Significant variation in individual student exam scores were also assessed. No significant differences were found in either of these datasets.

Implications: The results of this research suggest that moving to a remotely proctored online exams does not put at risk the academic integrity of examinations. Additionally, students indicated a preference for online exams as it provides them the flexibility to take exams when and where they want.

Mann, The Ohio State University. Objectives: To strategically develop curricula and coursework to broadly reach undergraduate students pursuing biomedical careers and those majoring in non-science disciplines. Faculty, staff, students, and community stakeholders collaboratively used the Backward Design process to create a BSPS curriculum of high appeal to students pursuing clinical and research-based careers.

New opportunities to bring highly relevant Pharmacy topics to any student were subsequently developed and resulted in a flexible PS minor and new GE courses. Growth of the program is strong as indicated by increases in overall major enrollees as well as applicants to our PharmD Early Admission Pathway. In only 2 years, PS minor enrollment is approaching students. Implications: In a challenging admissions environment nationwide, Colleges of Pharmacy must look at novel avenues to attract and engage future PharmD students and other student audiences on campus.

The OSU programs demonstrate a successful growth model that can be replicated at other institutions. Candace M. Cauthon, University of the Incarnate Word. The hypothesis is DA students perform significantly better than traditionally-admitted pharmacy students. Method: Three student cohorts from the DA program have matriculated through the P1 year. Results: This study analyzed 38 DA and Traditional students.

Osama A. Shoair, The University of Texas at Tyler. Objectives: Some PharmD programs that use team-based learning TBL require students to obtain a certain percentage on individual activities before earning grades from team activities leading to 1 increased complexity of grading schemes, 2 increased number of students who fail or need remediation, and 3 inflation of grades for some students.

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new grading scheme will reduce the percentage of students who fail or need remediation and decrease grade inflation. However, it allows students to earn all course grades without obtaining a specific percentage on individual activities.

A retrospective comparison of grades using the new versus old scheme was performed on a random sample of three courses. Implications: The new grading scheme reduces the percentage of students who fail or need remediation and decreases grade inflation. It offers a fair grading system for students in pharmacy programs using TBL, while maintaining students' individual accountability. Feemster, University of Maryland. Objectives: To develop a naloxone training activity and assess the impact on student-pharmacist knowledge and confidence to counsel about management of opioid overdose and naloxone administration.

Method: First-year students participated in a naloxone training activity in a required abilities laboratory course. An objective structured clinical examination OSCE was conducted to assess their ability to counsel about the use of intranasal naloxone. Students also completed self-assessments about their confidence in counseling about management of opioid overdose and naloxone administration following the OSCE and at the end of the course. Confidence in counseling about the use of intramuscular naloxone was slightly lower.

Laurel A. Lafitte, The University of Louisiana at Monroe. Method: Through a faculty-led process, EI and remediation procedures were modified and approved by faculty and administration. Qualifying P1 students are also required to meet with the Director of Progression for academic coaching. Compliance with all requirements is a prerequisite of remediation.

Results: Delayed graduation rates for incoming classes have improved with the implementation of this process: The number of P1 students failing to progress has also decreased: 13 , 0 , 1 , 2 Implications: Other schools of pharmacy could use this model to improve progression throughout the professional program.

Diane W. Morel, South College. Method: A comprehensive needs assessment was performed via convergence of academic services usage data for an exisiting voluntary academic support program with data collected from informal focus groups and a newly designed survey of current students focused on student engagement with and perceptions of the value of and reasons for non-engagement with various academic support services.

Results: Usage data indicated student reluctance to react promptly to academic challenges failed exams or respond to academic outreach. The most common reasons given was pride, and no convenient time to pursue given their busy schedule.

Many indicated they just had to spend more time studying without consideration of different or more effective strategies. Success was indexed by reduced failed exams and re-exams, increased attendance and peer tutoring, and perseverance.

The practice continues, now embedded in a Center for Student Learning, with co-curricular 'credit' for professionalism tutees , leadership and service tutors. Unni, Roseman University of Health Sciences. The first aim of the study was to identify motivators and barriers to SET response rate and to identify strategies to increase the response rate. The second aim was to determine if the implemented strategies improved response rates to SETs.

Method: The study used a mixed methods design using modified Delphi technique across four phases. In phases 1 and 2, motivators and barriers for completing SETs and potential remediation strategies were identified from students and consensus was formed. Phase 3 used Assessment Committee and phase 4 used faculty to refine and reach consensus with all the identified motivators, barriers, and potential strategies. All the strategies were implemented in academic year and response rates to SETs before and after implementation was analyzed using t-tests to determine if there was a difference in the response rates.

Results: The strategies implemented based on the identified barriers were decreasing the length of the survey and rating scale, using validated SET items to decrease ambiguity, educating students and faculty on SETs, and incentivizing for completion of SET. Implications: Engaging students and faculty resulted in a significant improvement in SET response rates which can be adopted by other schools struggling with low SET response rates.

Miriam C. Objectives: To investigate and compare the perceived stress of student pharmacists SP1, SP2, and SP3 who earned or did not earn a bachelor degree prior to enrollment in a 3-year program. A secondary objective was to determine the nature of coping strategies employed by pharmacy students to alleviate stress. Method: A link to an online survey was sent to pharmacy students.

The 13 question online survey included the validated item Perceived Stress Scale, demographic information, degree status, assessment performance, and major stressors and coping mechanisms. SP1 and SP2 students were given time to complete the survey in class. SP3 students were invited to participate via email and completed the survey remotely. The survey was kept open for 5 days. Statistical analyses were completed using Minitab. Results: A total of Mark A. Doctor of Pharmacy Programs.

Doctor of Pharmacy programs for the and admission cycles. Utilization trends for programs requiring PCAT for both the and were evaluated. The remaining programs recommended preferred scores or gave guidance on competitive scores. Public institutions required the PCAT more frequently and were more likely to require minimum scores while private institutions include more preference or guidance statements.

A total of 30 programs altered PCAT requirements between and Twenty-four lowered PCAT requirements; 10 programs stopped requiring the exam, 5 lowered minimum scores, 3 changed a minimum to a preference given and 3 programs removed a preference statement and 3 removed a minimum score. Six programs raised requirements; 2 added the exam, 3 added minimum scores, and 1 provided a guidance statement. Ami D. Lewis, Campbell University.

Objectives: This study examined pharmacy training, confidence, and career goals in students identifying as underrepresented racial minorities URM currently enrolled in a Doctor of Pharmacy PharmD program. Method: PharmD students at the business session of Student National Pharmaceutical Association annual meeting were invited to complete a survey about pharmacy experience, confidence, and career goals. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and chi-square.

Results: A total of participants completed the survey. Sixty-nine The frequency with which URM students engaged in professional activities during PharmD training in various pharmacy settings e. Implications: There were differences in the confidence levels and career goals of URM when compared to their counterparts.

The results of this study may be useful for informing career and professional development opportunities. Stephens, University of Washington , Peggy S. Odegard, University of Washington. Objectives: To engage high school students in hands-on activities that provide an introduction to pharmacy practice, inspire exploration of pharmacy and health care as a career option, and provide perspective on the ways pharmacists contribute to improving healthcare outcomes through a day camp model.

Method: A four-day summer program, Students Exploring Pharmacy STEP , employing informational and active learning sessions, such as hands-on skill exploration, problem-based learning activities, and group presentations was developed. A patient case activity was threaded through the program to better illustrate the various ways pharmacists work with patients and their families and to contextualize what students were learning.

Students found the active learning components most beneficial and suggested finding ways to increase active learning in future iterations of the program. Active learning strategies were effective in engaging high school student participants and opportunities to expand active learning should be explored for future years.

The four-day program model is adaptable and transferable to other schools of pharmacy and may also be modified for other target audiences community colleges, local undergraduates, etc. Islam, West Coast University. Three courses in each didactic year employed ExamSoft. Prior to this, courses had Scantron-based written exams.

In response to this change, students expressed concerns about their grades being lowered. Furthermore, some students seemed to find no usefulness in computer-based testing. We hypothesized this was due to their inherent bias toward technology and its use in exams. Method: To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a survey of all students.

The survey responses were stratified according to the preference of respondents towards technology and its use in exams. Respondents were stratified into 3 groups: tech-embracers answered — I love trying new technology, and I prefer to save paper and read on a screen or tech-skeptics answered — I hate having to learn new technology, and I prefer paper over electronics for any type of reading or neutral.

Shannon R. Objectives: Improve assessment of the impact of student absences on program delivery, and responsiveness to students at risk of academic difficulty due to external issues such as illness. Ensure that policies related to student absences are enforced consistently.

Method: The University of Maryland School of Pharmacy has long had a policy regarding student absences. Implementation of this policy, however, was the responsibility of individual instructors. Because of this, it was difficult to assess the impact of student absences both on a programmatic and individual basis. A policy was enacted creating a centralized process in which students submit excused absence requests to the Offices of Academic Affairs and Student Affairs.

The two offices decided to track data related to requests in a dedicated web-based system instead of email or paper records. Results: A web-based form and associated tracking system was created to manage absence requests. Once submitted, the web system facilitates private discussion of requests by the associate deans of the two offices, communication with the student requestor, and notifications to instructors once a decision is made.

The system also allows for reporting on aggregate data, such as type of request and length of absence. It also can help identify students who may be inappropriately using requested absences. Implications: Centralizing excused absence request handling in an administrative office can be accomplished with a relatively low amount of initial effort.

In addition to increasing aggregate analytic capabilities as outlined above, recording the history of student requests in a dedicated space improves institutional memory. Method: A Co-Curriculum Committee comprised of faculty and student representatives was formed to develop co-curricular learning outcomes, co-curricular requirements, and assessment criteria for a four-year Doctor of Pharmacy program.

Results: The co-curriculum relates to activities that complement the academic learning experience and includes activities that engage students with opportunities to learn and refine technical, affective, and cognitive skills. Additionally, the current job market values the qualities developed through the co-curriculum. Eddington, University of Maryland.

Objectives: The objective is to review seismic shifts in pharmacist supply and demand, and urge immediate action. Method: Pharmacy education and pharmacist occupation data were compiled and compared. Pharmacist employers are restructuring employment to save on labor costs instead of implementing more value-based business models; pharmacist salaries are plateauing and part-time positions are increasing. Pharmacy school applications have declined steadily since , and yet pharmacy schools continue to increase supply.

Implications: Meanwhile, pharmacist patient care is expanding and transitioning from fee-for-service to value-based care should make sense to employers. Retail settings must accelerate changes in their current business model to seize upon new patient-focused revenue opportunities. Together the schools, associations, and employers can change the trajectories of supply and demand if they take immediate and significant actions to tip the balance in favor of pharmacists of the future.

Objectives: The objective of this project was to use a multi-phased training approach to improve examination administration and user preparedness. Method: Using comprehensive guides, one page sheets, in person trainings, and practical application of skills, the School developed a model for effective training and support.

Training consisted of two separate phases of examination administration. The first phase focused on high level concepts, such as examination policy, and the second on the development of practical skills. To develop and refine skills, trainees completed a skills assessment within the ExamSoft portal receiving feedback throughout the process. Results: This multi-phased approach resulted in trainees having a better grasp of examination policy as well as an increased proficiency with the ExamSoft portal.

This informed the creation of targeted communications, refined training approaches, and proactive consultations to improve the exam administration abilities of faculty, staff, and teaching assistants. Implications: The success of this methodology has helped establish a repeatable approach to exam administration training that can improve exam reliability and reduce support requirements.

Joseph V. Etzel, St. John's University , Diana J. Patino, St. John's University. Additionally, a multifaceted Early Alert process was put into place to identify at-risk students to ensure identification and intervention Method: The center was developed to provide tutoring and workshops for pharmacy students in their professional years. Doctoral fellows, peer pharmacy P4 graduate assistants, and faculty provide individual, group tutoring, and academic workshops focused on course specific topics, general study skills, and other topics.

At-risk students can be identify through a multifaceted Early Alert Process, monitoring of in-class assessments and an electronic faculty driven notification system that allows for appropriate intervention which can include tutoring or workshops. Student are able to self-enroll in any of the ASC programs.

Results: In , students visited the ASC for an excess of hours of tutoring. This past semester the Center served a total of students receiving hours of tutoring. Eight workshops were held this semester servicing students. Implications: The implementation of these student centered services system was well received and proved to be beneficial.

Continued growth of the services provided by the ASC will likely assist in assuring a higher rate of academic success for our students. Diana J. John's University , Francis A. Ferraiuolo, St. John's University , Joseph V. Objectives: The College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences developed a Student Congress to improve the communication and coordination of student-related activities and events between students, student organizations, faculty and the administration of the college as well as develop interprofessional activities.

Method: The Student Congress membership includes the Presidents and Vice Presidents of 16 Pharmacy student organization, 1 Toxicology organization, 1 physician assistant organization, 1 Clinical Laboratory Sciences organization, and 1 Radiologic Sciences organization. In addition, 1 elected representative from each professional year for each of the above majors serves in the congress. Members of the student congress have formal bi-weekly meetings to discuss pertinent student concerns, discuss event strategies and the members are responsible for communicating back to the student body.

In addition, a shared calendar was developed for all faculty, administrators, staff and students of the college that lists all student events and interprofessional activities. Members of the student congress were provide with additional opportunities to build on their own leadership skills. Results: In its first year, 40 co-sponsored events were developed and promoted by the student congress.

These include: fundraising events, Giving Tuesday, community services, interprofessional clinical challenges, leadership panels, careers panels, residency and fellowship showcases. Implications: The development of the student congress enhanced communication and cooperation amongst the student organization within the college. Additionally, the student congress served to facilitate improved communication between the students, faculty and administrations of the student congress.

Continued efforts will help the college in meeting the AACP standards of professionalism, interprofessional education and co-curricular activities. Terrick A. Objectives: An estimated 55, new pancreatic cancer cases and 44, deaths will occur in the United States by the end of Gemcitabine, erlotinib and gefitinib are approved for treating pancreatic cancer, however, acquired-resistance limits their long-term clinical efficacy.

We investigated the anticancer efficacy of these therapies in a two-drug combination regimen with piperlongumine, a natural plant extract as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming acquired-resistance in pancreatic cancer. Method: Piperlongumine was investigated across a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines Capan-1, Panc-1 and MIA-PaCa-2 using the Resazurin dye-uptake assay for cell viability at 72 h. Combination regimen of piperlongumine with either gemcitabine, erlotinib or gefitinib were tested in MIA-PaCa-2 cells for cell viability by fixing the concentration of piperlogumine 0.

Results: Piperlongumine had an IC50 of Piperlongumine was more potent compared to gemcitabine IC Significantly, low-dose gemcitabine, erlotinib or gefitinib in combination piperlongumine was more effective in inhibiting MIA-PaCa-2 cell viability compared to single treatments. Implications: Piperlongumine is a potent natural plant extract that may be useful in adjunctive treatment of drug resistant pancreatic cancer. Fawzy A. Objectives: We investigated the effects of thymoquinone TQ , a Quinone phytochemical in the plant Nigella Sativa, on Arachidonic acid AA metabolism in the kidney and its effect on arterial blood pressure, using spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR as our animal model system.

Mean arterial pressure MAP was measured at 7-day intervals throughout the study. Only the high dose TQ resulted in a significant reduction in the expression and activity of renal sEH. Consistent with these data, we have found that treatment with TQ resisted the progressive rise in MAP in the developing SHR in a dose-dependent manner. This may represent a novel mechanism by which TQ protects SHR rats against the progressive rise in blood pressure. Objectives: A research-based sequence of electives was designed to provide pharmacy students with training in research methodology and scientific presentation to prepare them for research focused career opportunities.

Method: A 3-course elective sequence was designed with a focus on translational research and develops research, analytical and scientific presentation skills. The first course provides training in the fundamental methods required for translational research. The second course applies the research methods to a short term scientific research project. The third course teaches the art of presenting and communicating scientific concepts and articulating the significance of the outcomes in both oral and written formats.

Results: 16 PY2 and PY3 Students participated in the first course performing a number of hands-on experiments that included quantitative and qualitative analysis of macromolecules as well as application of cell culture and microbiology experimental approaches for different research questions.

Students were evaluated on their knowledge of experimental design, scientific calculations, accuracy of technique, results, productivity and professionalism. Assessments included laboratory reports and examinations. Students evaluated the course at the end of the semester using a course evaluation survey. Students completing the course demonstrated elevated levels of knowledge of laboratory practices and technical skills, and increased interest in pursuing research careers within the pharmaceutical or biotechnology industry.

Implications: A 3-course research sequence was successfully designed and implemented that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in biological and pharmaceutical sciences research. Students report that the elective sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Objectives: Numerous products that are already on the market claim to have used nanotechnology in manufacturing processes.

There is an increasing concern regarding their potential health hazards. Nanoparticles that enter the circulation end up in the liver and are trapped in the reticulo endothelial cells. Their potential toxic effects in hepatocytes are unknown. High mobility group box-1 HMGB1 is a nonhistone nucleoprotein that regulates transcription. It plays an important role in many cellular processes including inflammation, cell differentiation and tumorcell migration.

It is also considered a mechanistic marker of liver injury. Method: The acute cytotoxicity was quantified by measuring the LDH leakage into the media. In addition, hepatocellular HMGB1 protein expression following a single or repeated treatment was measured by western blotting.

No secreted HMGB1 was detected in the media. Similar results were seen with TiO2 treatment. Kisor, Manchester University , David R. PGx coverage varies between institutions from minimal inclusion to stand-alone courses. The goal of this article is to provide faculty with a method for prioritizing the multitude of available PGx information that they may use to custom fit the information into the allocated time for PGx education in their PharmD curriculum.

Results: Drugs were categorized into 4 tiers of importance for inclusion into a PharmD curriculum. Implications: Institutions with limited time dedicated to PGx education could use the tier system as a guide for including PGx education into their curriculum, ensuring that their PharmD students will, at a minimum, receive education on the most commonly prescribed drugs with FDA-mandated PGx drug labeling and published guidelines for clinical decisions.

Forensics for Pharmacy Students, Really? Arturo G. Marti-Ortiz, University of Puerto Rico. Objectives: To offer an elective course on principles of forensic sciences that enhance the knowledge of pharmacy students P3 ; to obtain student perceptions as to relevance of forensic topics to their pharmacy education.

Method: Academic activities demanded active-participation. A reflection of each activity was required. Classroom lectures included: methods of analysis, drug variations depending on body collection sites, post-mortem redistribution PMR , cause of death COD , and expert testimony.

Autopsy reports were analyzed by the class. Each student presented three forensic research papers. Marijuana legalization was discussed in an adversarial scenario. State forensic laboratories and Drug Court were visited. Class project was the development of a 21st Century Drug Policy. Results: Students perceptions and reflections overwhelmingly favored inclusion of such a course or components into the pharmacy curriculum.

Representative student reflections: the topics presented were useful to our professional development; the course offered a new perspective of pharmacy that I did not think possible; the subject matter is not covered in courses such as pharmacology or therapeutics; I will recommend this course to future students; I learned in detail about opioids, legal and illegal use and consequences; I plan to apply concepts learned to my pharmacy practice; the course experience has been unique showing me areas in forensics were a pharmacist can have influence.

Implications: In the increasing complicated paradigm of drug use, knowledge of forensic concepts augments the possibility of new roles for pharmacists. Rivkin, Fairleigh Dickinson University. During review of trended data from two cohorts, the assessment committee identified a decline in the first attempt pass rate for IDRP assessment. A working group was formed to further analyze the current state of IDRP assessment and propose an action plan to remedy the decline in pass rate.

Working group followed a stepwise approach to re-design the assessment, incorporating: pre-specified guidelines and checklists for creating patient vignettes assessment instrument , a process for rigorous and in-depth review of cases, integration of practice-based patient cases into didactic curriculum, and a priori review session. The number of students who performed as strong answered 3 out of 3 cases correctly increased from A similar trend of improved performance is predicted with future cohorts.

Implications: Comprehensive evaluation of student performance longitudinally has informed important changes to the development and administration of IDRP pre-APPE assessment. Lessons learned from this approach are transferable for on-going improvement of all pre-APPE skills and knowledge-based assessments.

Ajay K. The cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion assay and caspase-3 activity was confirmed using caspase-3 active ELISA kit. Alpha-santalol also significantly reduced the levels of survivin as determined by survivin ELISA assay. Objectives: Mast cell activation is a crucial step in the induction of allergic responses, resulting in the release of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Thiol isomerases such as the oxidoreductase-protein disulfide isomerase PDI play critical roles during protein folding and also act as molecular chaperones during immune responses.

We therefore hypothesized that mast cell activation and cytokine production will be attenuated in the absence of PDI induction, leading to the suppression of mast cell-mediated allergic responses. Similarly, wild-type mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and treated with PACMA to determine whether PDI inhibition can modulate the development of food allergy. In contrast, pretreatment with the PDI inhibitors resulted in decreased expression and secretion of these cytokines.

Furthermore, treatment of wild-type mice with PACMA in a model of ovalbumin-induced food allergy resulted in a significant attenuation in the development of food allergy symptoms including decreases in allergic diarrhea, mast cell activation and allergen-specific IgE. Implications: These data therefore suggest that mast cell activation during allergic responses may be regulated by PDI induction, and that blocking PDI function may prove to be of therapeutic benefit in allergic patients.

Metacognitive Awareness in Entering P1 Students. Margaret A. Weck, St. Louis College of Pharmacy , Chris N. Thai, St. Louis College of Pharmacy. Objectives: To examine the potential relationship between metacognitive ability and academic success at the St. Grade data was compiled by the VP for Institutional Research. There was no statistically sig. MAI score 4. MAI score 3. This relationship was also seen for the knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition sub-scores of the MAI in both semesters.

But for this cohort there is an interaction between MAI scores and grade performance in the Junior year. Explicitly developing metacognition may help increase student success and persistence in degree programs. Objectives: This study implemented a standardized Substance Abuse Attitude Survey SAAS to measure explicit attitudes of early-level pharmacy students towards social drug use and substance users. The main question investigated was whether exposure to a semester-long drug abuse pharmacology course was sufficient to alter substance use attitudes towards alcohol, marijuana, and other substances.

A previously validated SAAS instrument with 49 Likert-type questions was administered online on the first baseline and final week and data collected anonymously in both groups. Parametric mean scores were analyzed for statistical significance using the Sidak corrected t-tests. Stereotyped attitudes towards drug users, however, were not altered substantially in either group. Implications: These data suggest that even brief exposure to didactic content on drug abuse pharmacology can be of value in inducing attitude change, while certain stereotyped attitudes towards substance users are more resistant to change.

Objectives: Pharmacological agents that can modulate calcium homeostasis are being extensively explored as potential anti-inflammatory agents. Ellagic acid EA , a polyphenolic compound found in many fruits and plant extracts, has been known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanism of action behind its anti-inflammatory action is unclear. EA is thought to modulate calcium homeostasis.

However effects of EA on calcium signaling is not clearly understood. We studied the impact of EA on calcium handling, in particular, store-operated calcium entry SOCE , a process critical to proper T cell function. Method: Jurkat T cells were loaded with calcium sensitive dye Fluo-4AM to measure changes in intracellular calcium.

HEK cells were transfected using lipofectatmine according to the manufacturer's protocol. EA treatment also reduced cytokine secretion and nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcriptional activity in stimulated T cells. Implications: These observations suggest a novel target to EA-mediated effects and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying EA mediated anti-inflammatory effects.

Amanda M. Johnson, Shenandoah University. Objectives: To assess vertical and horizontal retention of foundational microbiology material in a required third-year infectious diseases integrated therapeutics course. Method: Students in a third-year infectious disease pharmacy course were administered a nine-question pre-quiz for bonus points at the start of the course to permit students to self-assess their retention of foundational microbiology material from their first professional year.

Students were then provided with review material. The same assessment was administered two weeks later as a quiz and at the end of the course as a post-quiz for bonus points to allow students to self-assess retention of material. Results from nine similar questions on the first-year microbiology exam and the three third year quizzes were analyzed using paired t-tests and ANOVA. Implications: Reactivation of knowledge from first professional year was achieved with an out-of-class review.

Retention of this material persisted to the end of the infectious disease course demonstrating that a brief, student-driven review of material was sufficient to help students recall and retain knowledge from their first to their third professional year. Park, Roseman University of Health Sciences. Objectives: To develop an introductory primer course for incoming P1 students leveling the gap in knowledge base for successful completion of basic biomedical sciences blocks in an accelerated pharmacy program.

Method: Focus group discussion with students and faculty led to the approach, identification of the problem and development of the course structure. Under-performing basic biomedical sciences blocks were identified through analysis of nine different assessment data for last three years by a group of P2 students. Voluntary faculty participation created six short learning modules with audio covering the identified areas with pretest and test questions.

The modules were released to the incoming P1students prior to attending the class for two weeks. Course use activity and student satisfaction were monitored. Post-use experience was discussed at a P1 focus group. Course use data shows highest use Student satisfaction indicated a high and increasing trend mean 3. Implications: Early intervention can be an effective measure to ensure satisfactory academic progression.

A properly designed levelling course can bridge the gap in knowledge base leading to academic success with reduction in attrition rates. Edafiogho, University of Saint Joseph. Objectives: The objectives were to synthesize imidooxy compounds and evaluate them in different cancer cell lines at National Cancer institute and at one of our laboratories. Preliminary results from our laboratory indicate that certain imidooxy compounds possess promising anticancer activities against breast, lung, colon, prostate and brain cancer.

The most potent compound, E49 methyl N-phthalimidooxymethylacrylate has a potential anticancer activity in different cell lines at concentrations ranging from 10 nanomolar. Method: The reaction of N-hydroxyphthalimide with 2-bromomethylacrylate in triethylamine yielded the typical imidooxy analog E Using similar synthetic schemes, imidooxy formates, acetates, propionates, and methylacrylates were prepared from N-hydroxynaphthalimide, N-hydroxyphthalimide, N-hydroxysuccinimide, and endo-N-hydroxynorbornene.

We determined the structural activity relationship with different ring sizes, side chain extensions, and bioisosteric substitutions on the anticancer activity of the imidooxy compounds. Results: In our laboratories, the imidooxies had anticancer activity in T98, U, and U glioblastoma cancer cell lines at 2. Generally, the phthalimidooxy and naphthalimidooxy compounds afforded the more potent anticancer agents.

Implications: The potential advantages of the imidooxy anticancer agents include better toleration, reduced resistance during therapy, and synergistic effect when used with other anticancer agents. Objectives: Leishmania is a human pathogen that afflicts nearly 12 million worldwide.

Current drug regimens for leishmaniasis are limited, and lack both specificity and efficacy. The goal of our research is to identify molecular targets within Leishmania to advance drug discovery efforts. Stress response pathways are a particularly attractive paradigm, since they protect parasites from fluctuations in the host environment and promote survival.

A large number of candidates were significantly altered in abundance in response to purine limitation, and of these, proteins and phosphopeptides were altered only in those stress conditions triggering a pro-survival outcome.

Timothy J. Shuford, Virginia Commonwealth University. Method: Branch campuses were identified using Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education designations. Branch type was defined as satellite content originating at one campus is shared with another; students are assigned to one campus for their entire program or sequential students complete didactic coursework at one main campus, then disperse to another campus for APPEs.

The and AACP faculty and graduating student survey results were requested from the AACP Office of Institutional Research and Effectiveness, and separated into campus categories: one campus, satellite campus and sequential campus. Implications: This study provides insight into pathway comparability and potential drivers to improve satisfaction for students and faculty at different models of pharmacy schools.

Sigrid C. Objectives: A better understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions is critical for the development of much needed therapeutic strategies against the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Recent studies have highlighted the critical nature of polyamines in parasites. These enzymes sequentially generate ornithine, putrescine, and spermidine.

Method: Proliferation and replication rates of polyamine-depleted and supplemented parasites were established in vitro by counting parasites on a hemocytometer and analyzing bromodeoxyuridine BrdU incorporation, respectively. Parasite survival was assessed with qualitative rescue assays. The ability of gene deletion mutants to establish infections was investigated in macrophages and mice. Results: Depletion of both putrescine and spermidine leads to imminent cell death, while the presence of putrescine or spermidine alone allows parasites to enter a quiescent-like state.

Implications: The observed discrepancies in infectivity phenotypes suggest a model in which the polyamine precursor ornithine is readily salvaged by intracellular parasites, whereas the polyamines putrescine and spermidine are severely limited. Polyamine depletion causes a profound growth and survival defect in vitro and in vivo, validating the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. Vera C. Campbell, Hampton University , Monzurul A.

Roni, Hampton University , Yogesh M. Kulkarni, Hampton University , Justin C. At risk students identified with this method will receive addition support and remediation during P4 year. Gurkishan S. Parmelee, University of New England. Objectives: Although PowerPoint presentations are integral in conveying content to students, they offer limited opportunities for students to engage with one another.

Game applications can incorporate fun activities, increase peer interactions and promote active learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a mobile application, Quizlet towards enhancing student content comprehension and improving performance in course assessments. Method: Class material was uploaded into Quizlet. Student performance in 4 assessments was compared 2 each with and without Quizlet. The analysis showed that there was a significant improvement in assessment scores that incorporated Quizlet compared to assessments that did not include use of Quizlet.

With Quizlet, class mean score in assessments increased by more than 7. Implications: Quizlet as a novel tool can help to enhance retention of massive amounts of information that students need to learn, and help them perform better in their classes. Subrata Deb, Larkin University. Objectives: Epidemiological studies have shown that lower serum levels of 25 OH D3 are associated with increased risk of cancer, immune disorder and osteoporosis.

The purpose of the present work was to analyze the guidelines from various American health agencies and organizations for desired vitamin D levels in humans and recommended supplementation of vitamin D. Due to the inconsistencies between guidelines and their implications on pharmacist patient counseling and researchers, new recommendations are proposed.

Results: Our data suggest that there are essentially two different prototypes of 25 OH D3 levels and daily supplementation recommendations. The guidelines of other agencies analyzed in this study fall in between these prototypes. Implications: Overall, there are inconsistencies in guidelines on vitamin D3 needs between different agencies and modulation of vitamin D3 levels by comorbidities or comedications confounds the interpretations.

A model has been formulated that takes the pathophysiology and comedications into consideration and will propel future research on identification of disease-based vitamin D level requirement. These programs mimic the responses of heart rate and blood pressure in Cardiolab, and smooth muscle contractions in Ileum. The output from the software is a mock polygraph chart trace, and the drug-elicited deflections in the trace are measured and analyzed by students.

Future measurement of the impact of this elective course will be to correlate student performances in the virtual laboratory with their performances in the respective didactic Pharmacology courses. Implications: Virtual laboratory animal experiments can be designed and performed in a short amount of time with minimal cost and infrastructure.

This allows the course to be easily scheduled into the curriculum and minimizes expenses associated with an animal facility. Computer simulations are therefore a useful platform to introduce students to in vitro and in vivo pharmacological methods.

Comfort A. Boateng, High Point University. Objectives: To understand the Dopamine D4 Receptor D4R subtype-mediated signaling is essential to understanding and treating D4R-associated disorders, including substance abuse disorders. Method: We created a small next-generation compound library using computational modelling to design D4R ligands based on the parental scaffold of the prototypical D4R partial agonist A 2- 4- pyridinyl piperidinyl -N- m-tolyl acetamide.

A series of novel A analogue ligands were synthesized by using m-toluidine intermediate, and then coupling with 2-chloroacetyl chloride to give the intermediate 2-chloro-N- m-tolyl acetamide. Followed by coupling with substituted or unsubstituted piperidine and pyridine moieties. Their binding affinities were determined using both agonist and antagonist by competitive inhibition of OH-DPAT and [3H]N-methylspiperone radioligand binding assays respectively in HEK cells expressing dopamine D2-like receptors.

Results: We found that substitutions on the piperidine and pyridine moieties, as well as modifications in linker length, led to several novel lead compounds with improved selectivity and potency, and varying degrees of agonist efficacy. Implications: These ligands displayed a range of agonist efficacies from highly efficacious partial agonists to full antagonists of the D4R. Interestingly, some compounds with similar binding affinities showed divergent functional efficacies, allowing for the generation of a preliminary structure-activity relationship underlying functional efficacy.

The studies have further extended our understanding of ligand-receptor interactions and the relationship between the orthosteric binding pocket and extended binding pocket. A correlation with breath acetone and A1C levels as well as with blood glucose is known. Thus, a non-invasive method of testing breath acetone would provide immediate information regarding the diabetic-level of an individual as well as possibly supplant the current self-monitoring of blood glucose for those with diabetes.

We have developed and tested a technology that can be used as both a screener and a monitoring device. Method: Our Stage 1 Clinical study was performed on 50 individuals: 26 non-diabetic and 24 diabetic individuals.

Our Stage 2 Clinical study, with six volunteers, was done to monitor the blood glucose to breath acetone correlation over a 3 hrs time span. Implications: We have been able to demonstrate that by analyzing for breath acetone it is possible to both screen for, and monitor diabetes. Therefore, the development of a portable, hand-held, non-invasive screening and monitoring device for diabetes is highly feasible. Zhihong Xu, South College. Therefore, it is important to study the processes which contribute to the generation of the impurities.

Susan L. Torr, Lipscomb University. Objectives: The safe and accurate preparation of compounded sterile preparations CSPs is a fundamental responsibility of pharmacy practice. A pilot IPPE Simulation was developed to expose PY2 student pharmacists to clinical and distributive functions of pharmacist delivered care in an institutional setting.

Objectives of the IPPE Simulation included assessing retention of sterile compounding competencies: 1 accuracy of a CSP and 2 demonstration of aseptic technique. Method: Students applied the pharmacist patient care process to a simulated patient case involving intravenous vancomycin therapy. Students calculated a patient specific vancomycin dose and prepared an aseptic formulation.

HPLC analysis was used to determine the actual vancomycin dose in the student formulations using a linear calibration curve with five calibrants. Students completed gloved-fingertip and media-fill testing procedures to verify competency with aseptic processes. The average percent difference correlated to the calculated dose was 8. Student retention of knowledge and skills for accurate CSP preparation is not adequately retained after 12 months. Implications: IPPEs signify an opportunity to integrate and reinforce sterile compounding competencies throughout the curriculum.

Such curriculum can fill training gaps in entry-level sterile compounding competency. Ola A. Keefe, University of Saint Joseph. Objectives: Communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors are two main domains defining autism. Increasing serotonin level at the synaptic cleft modulates repetitive behaviors via unknown mechanism.

However, the elevated serotonin level stimulates inhibitory autoreceptors, exerting a negative feedback mechanism, contradicting SSRIs function. Method: Our design utilized the tethering technique i. As common serotonergic motifs, all our design includes n-arylpiperazines as key intermediates. Synthesis was accomplished via Williamson Ether synthesis of trifluoromethylphenol and methyl-bromophenylacetate, followed by hydrolysis.

Then coupling the resulted substituted phenoxyacetic acid with various n-aryl substituted piperazines. The synthetic scheme, and the effect of the various amines on the inhibition of the 5-HT uptake and serotonin autoreceptors will be presented. Implications: Phenoxyacetic acid analogs with n-arylpiperazine motif are potential lead compounds for developing bi-functional serotonergic ligands for repetitive behaviors modulation in autism. Marcy Hernick, Appalachian College of Pharmacy. Objectives: To determine the effect of course scheduling on student exam performance.

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An easy way to determine if your portfolio is diversified is by looking at your current performance. Diversified investments won't move in the same direction at the same time. If some of your investments are up while others are down, you've got diversification. Think of diversification as a Christmas tree: Red and green together means you'll fair better in all weather. The Single Woman's Investment Guide.

The Juneteenth holiday weekend may come as a bit of respite for investors. Last week, they had to navigate increasingly turbulent markets: The officially entered a bear market on Monday, the Federal Reserve announced a 0. Is the Stock Market Closed on Juneteenth? In this piece we will take a look at the ten best falling stocks to buy right now. If you want to skip our introduction of the companies and the general economic outlook, jump right ahead to 5 Best Falling Stocks to Buy Right Now.

The start of had a tinge of optimism to […]. The Oracle of Omaha regularly buys back Berkshire Hathaway shares too. Anyone positioning their portfolio for a recession could be making a big mistake. Now that electric vehicle EV stocks have tumbled from excessive valuations, many people are looking closer at getting exposure to the sector. If you invested in BTC your […].

Now, will this be enough to stabilize prices, the next few hours will tell, but there are still many questions, especially about the solvency of many crypto projects and firms. Elon Musk, the CEO of Tesla , and one of the biggest influencers in the world gave his support on June 19 to the crypto industry and more particularly to the meme coin Dogecoin.

While many taxpayers dread tax filing season, Americans living abroad face even bigger yearly burdens and those are so frustrating that some want to ditch their U. Lower output from Chinese steel mills has hit demand for iron ore, while prices of commodities like copper and aluminium have slumped on worries that aggressive interest rate hikes by the U.

Federal Reserve's and other central banks could tip the global economy into a recession. When you inherit property, the IRS applies what is known as a stepped-up basis to that asset. Here's how capital gains are taxed on inherited property.

Vinny Zane has a taste for life — and an appetite for risk. The three major indexes finished last week with sharp losses. Casinos on cruise ships have offered slot machines, table games, and more, but sports betting has generally not been part of the offering. Enter Carnival Corp. President Joe Biden and a slew of other democrats have been lashing out against Big Oil, accusing the companies of price gouging.

Does the market have it all wrong with Tesla? Here's what investors need to know before buying shares of the EV king today. Companies will continue moving to the cloud, even in a recession. Oracle shares offer the cheapest way to play the trend. Bloomberg -- Stocks in Europe steadied Monday after the biggest weekly selloff since March, while US index futures gained as investors assessed the outlook for economic growth amid concerns about a wave of monetary tightening.

Dow 30 29, Nasdaq 10, Russell 1, Crude Oil Gold 1, Silver CMC Crypto FTSE 7, Nikkei 25, Read full article. Coryanne Hicks. September 27, , PM. What Is Diversification? In general, assets with longer timeframes carry more risk but often higher returns to compensate for that risk. There is no magic number of stocks to hold to avoid losses. In addition, it is impossible to reduce all risks in a portfolio; there will always be some inherent risk to investing that can not be diversified away.

There is discussion over how many stocks are needed to reduce risk while maintaining a high return. The most conventional view argues that an investor can achieve optimal diversification with only 15 to 20 stocks spread across various industries.

Other views contest that 30 different stocks are the ideal number of holdings. The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority FINRA states diversification is specific to each individual and to consider the decision after consulting an investment professional or using your own judgment.

For investors that might not be able to afford holdings across 30 different companies or for traders that want to avoid the transaction fees of buying that many stocks, index funds are a great choice. By holding this single fund, you gain partial ownership in all underlying assets of the index, which often comprises dozens if not hundreds of different companies, securities, and holdings.

Investors confront two main types of risk when they invest. The first is known as systematic or market risk. This type of risk is associated with every company. Common causes include inflation rates, exchange rates , political instability, war, and interest rates. This category of risk is not specific to any company or industry, and it cannot be eliminated or reduced through diversification. It is a form of risk that all investors must accept. The second type of risk is diversifiable or unsystematic.

This risk is specific to a company, industry, market, economy , or country. The most common sources of unsystematic risk are business risk and financial risk. Because it is diversifiable, investors can reduce their exposure through diversification.

Thus, the aim is to invest in various assets so they will not all be affected the same way by market events. Systematic risk affects the market in its entirety, not just one particular investment vehicle or industry. Diversification attempts to protect against losses. This is especially important for older investors that need to preserve wealth towards the end of their professional careers. It is also important for retirees or individuals approaching retirement that may no longer have stable income; if they are relying on their portfolio to cover living expenses, it is crucial to consider risk over returns.

Diversification is thought to increase the risk-adjusted returns of a portfolio. This means investors earn greater returns when you factor in the risk they are taking. Investors may be more likely to make more money through riskier investments, but a risk-adjusted return is usually a measurement of efficiency to see how well an investor's capital is being deployed. Some may argue diversifying is important as it also creates better opportunities. In our example above, let's say you invested in a streaming service to diversify away from transportation companies.

Then, the streaming company announces a major partnership and investment in content. Had you not been diversified across industries, you would have never reaped the benefit of positive changes across sectors. Last, for some, diversifying can make investing more fun. Instead of holding all of your investment within a very small group, diversifying means researching new industries, comparing companies against each other, and emotionally buying into different industries.

Professionals are always touting the importance of diversification but there are some downsides to this strategy. First, it may be somewhat cumbersome to manage a diverse portfolio, especially if you have multiple holdings and investments. Modern portfolio trackers can help with reporting and summarizing your holdings, but it can often be cumbersome needing to track a larger number of holdings. This also includes maintaining the purchase and sale information for tax reasons.

Diversification can also be expensive. Not all investment vehicles cost the same, so buying and selling will affect your bottom line —from transaction fees to brokerage charges. In addition, some brokerages may not offer specific asset classes you're interested in holding. Next, consider how complicated it can be.

For instance, many synthetic investment products have been created to accommodate investors' risk tolerance levels. These products are often complex and aren't meant for beginners or small investors. Those with limited investment experience and financial backing may feel intimidated by the idea of diversifying their portfolio. Unfortunately, even the best analysis of a company and its financial statements cannot guarantee it won't be a losing investment. Diversification won't prevent a loss, but it can reduce the impact of fraud and bad information on your portfolio.

Last, some risks simply can't be diversified away. Due to global uncertainty, stocks, bonds, and other classes all fell at the same time. Diversification might have mitigated some of those losses, but it can not protect against a loss in general. May cause investing to be more fun and enjoyable should investors like researching new opportunities. Diversification is a common investing technique used to reduce your chances of experiencing losses.

By spreading your investments across different assets, you're less likely to have your portfolio wiped out due to one negative event impacting that single holding. Instead, your portfolio is spread across different types of assets and companies, preserving your capital and increasing your risk-adjusted returns.

Diversification is a strategy that aims to mitigate risk and maximize returns by allocating investment funds across different vehicles, industries, companies, and other categories. A diversified investment portfolio includes different asset classes such as stocks, bonds, and other securities.

But that's not all. These vehicles are diversified by purchasing shares in different companies, asset classes, and industries. For instance, a diversified investor's portfolio may include stocks consisting of retail, transport, and consumer staple companies, as well as bonds—both corporate- and government-issued. Further diversification may include money market accounts and cash. When you diversify your investments, you reduce the amount of risk you're exposed to in order to maximize your returns.

Although there are certain risks you can't avoid such as systematic risks, you can hedge against unsystematic risks like business or financial risks. Diversification can help an investor manage risk and reduce the volatility of an asset's price movements. Remember, however, that no matter how diversified your portfolio is, risk can never be eliminated completely.

You can reduce the risk associated with individual stocks, but general market risks affect nearly every stock and so it is also important to diversify among different asset classes, geographical locations, security duration, and companies. The key is to find a happy medium between risk and return. This ensures you can achieve your financial goals while still getting a good night's rest. Portfolio Management. Risk Management. Fixed Income. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice.

Popular Courses. Table of Contents Expand. Table of Contents. What Is Diversification? Understanding Diversification. Different Types of Risk. Benefits of Diversification. Problems With Diversification. Diversification FAQs. The Bottom Line. Investopedia Investing.

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