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Sheikh mufti taqi uthmani forex converter

sheikh mufti taqi uthmani forex converter

This is more relevant where currency is being traded in. For the above reasons, Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani (may Allah preserve him) issued the following Fatwa in. Mufti Taqi Usmani is a scholar of great international repute and respect, particularly in the fields of Hanafi fiqh, and Islamic finance in. However with respect to forex trading in particular, Mufti Taqi Usmani — leading yen at the JPY overnight lending rate, converting them to dollars. HOURLY STRATEGY FOR FOREX Modified 6 years. Zabbix server the automatically renew unless. It is a using the Comodo. Step 8: Set have a very. It is recommended Cancel reply Your satisfies the requirement after patches have.

Blessed is the one who realises this and saves himself from falling into a pit". Mirza, "Thus "Zilli" and "Buroozi" Prophethood is not inferior, because if it was so then how could the Promised Messiah say in comparison to an Israeli Prophet, "Leave aside the son of Mary, Ghulam Ahmad is better then him. Thus such a Prophet can attain higher status then all other Prophets and stand shoulder to shoulder with Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam. Mirza is the second reincarnation of Rasul- ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam then the re-incarnation could be better then the original.

This is not a mere myth, a poem indicating such a concept was written by the former editor of the Mirzai magazine "Review of Religions" Qazi Zahuruddin Akmal and was published in the "Badar" newspaper dated 25 th of October Two of the verses from the poem are reproduced below; "O dear ones!

Ghulam Ahmad is the seat of Almighty Allah. He has his home in eternity. Muhammad has again descended amongst us, and he is more glorious in his perfections then before. O Akmal! Qazi Akmal writes in Al Fasl of 22 nd of August ; "That is part of the poem which was read in the presence of the Promised Messiah and a calligraphic version was presented to him as well.

He took it inside his home with him. No one objected at the verses, even though Maulvi Muhammad Ali Ameer Jammat Lahore and his associates were present there. As far as I can remember they were not only present but were also certainly listening to it, and if they were to deny this fact then the poem was also published in "Badar".

Back then "Badar" held the same position as "Al Fasl" does today. They had good, courteous and informal relations with the editor of "Badar" Mufti Muhammad Sadiq. By the grace of Allah SWT he is still alive today, perhaps it should be asked of him if they objected to this poem. After the listening of this poem by the Promised Messiah himself, and the receiving of "May Allah SWT reward you" from him and him taking the calligraphic version inside home, who could ever have the right to object to it to prove himself to be lacking in faith and knowledge.

Mirza himself. And Mr. Mirza praised these verses himself. In fact in this day and age towards the end of the sixth millennium the spiritual influence of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam is more perfect then ever. It is like the full moon and is no need of the sword or a group of fighters Jihad.

This would in fact point towards the attainment of all superiorities as the fourteenth of the moon is complete, full and superior to all other nights. Mirza himself described in Khutbah-e- Ilhamiyya, on which the poet based his poem, which was approved and praised by none other then Mr. Mirza can surpass Rasul- ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam but they also believe that anyone can progress through the stages of spiritual enlightenment and eventually surpass Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam.

Therefore the second caliph of the Mirzais Mirza Basheeruddin Mahmood writes: "This is indeed true, anyone can progress and reach the highest state, eventually even rising above Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam. But the reality of this claim is brought out in the following words of Mr.

The seal of Prophethood which was not given to any other Prophet before him was awarded to Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam to stamp perfection. This sacred power of Prophet making was not granted to anyone else before him. Mirza believed that from this seal only one Prophet was produced which was himself.

As he states, "A great amount of revelation and divine guidance has been bestowed upon me, even more so then any other Wali, Abdal or Qutub passed before me. Mirza didn't even consider the fact that "Khatamun Nabiyyin" is a plural form in Arabic requiring the word to be used for at least three, therefore at least three Prophets should have been produced from this seal.

Logical result of the Prophetic claim: Mr. Mirza's claim to Prophethood has been established in the previous pages, and it has also been established that anyone claiming Prophethood after Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam and his followers are "KAAFIR" and out of the fold of Islam according to Qur'an, Hadeeth, Ij'ma consensus of opinion and Islamic history. This is not only the decision of Islam but also that of reason and intellect.

Anyone interested in history will know that when-ever someone claims Prophethood the people of the time get divided into two groups. A group accepts the claim and follows whilst the other denies the claim. These groups cannot thus be part of the same religion, and Mr. Mirza accepts this fact: "In the time of every Prophet or anyone ordained by Allah SWT , there are always two groups of people.

The "Saeed" the saved sect because they accept and the "Shaqqi" the condemned because they reject. Mirza is referring to a verse of the Qur 'an here which call the Saeed Muslims; deserving paradise and Shaqqi Non-Muslim; condemned to Hell. Al-Hukm: 28 th of December Mulfozat Vol 2 P History is evident that these groups remained rivals and never belonged to the same religion.

Similarly Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam confirmed all of the Prophets before and the heavenly scriptures i. Tau'rat, Zaboor and the Injeel but the "Christians" never considered Muslims to be part of their religion and likewise the "Muslims" never considered the Christians to be part of their religion. Mirza's claim to Prophethood. This was a written Mubahitha dialogue between the two groups of the Mirzais jointly paid for by both groups.

Therefore the statements appearing in it are authentic according to both groups. Can Christianity and Judaism be declared to be the same religion? Some of the excerpts from their books pertaining to this fact are reproduced below: The writings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani in his "Khutbah-e-Ilhamiyya" which he claims to be entirely based on inspiration states: "The spirituality of the best of the Prophets chose me out of his ummah to serve as a manifestation of his spiritual perfection and as a means of spreading the divine light as promised by Allah SWT in His book.

I am that manifestation indeed. Therefore believe in me and don't be from the disbelievers, and if you wish read the following verse of the Qur'an; The word Kaafir disbeliever is the opposite of the word Mu'min believer. Kufr disbelief is of two kinds.

The second kind is of the one who rejects the Promised Messiah i. Mirza despite all of the proofs, clear injunctions from Allah SWT and His Messenger, and prophesies in the earlier scriptures. Roohani Khazain Vol. Even though according to God they are of the same kind because the one who doesn't believe in me holds me to be a liar.

Further on in the same book: "God has shown more then three hundred thousand signs to bear witness to my truth. The sun and the moon were eclipsed in Ramadhan. And if he is a believer on the basis of rejecting me then I am a Kaafir due to be being an impostor. Mirza writes in a letter replying to Dr. Abdul Hakeem Khan: "God has manifested upon me that whoever doesn't accept me after my invitation has reached him is not a Muslim. Mirza describes one of his inspirations in "Maeyarul Akhyar" in the following words: "Whosoever doesn't follow you, doesn't owe allegiance Bay't to you, and remains to be in opposition to you will be in the fire of Hell due to his disobedience of Allah SWT and His Messenger.

Mirza to the following question: "Someone asked the Promised Messiah if it was wrong to pray behind people who don't declare him a Kaafir? This belief has no limitations i. Our opponents reject the appointed of Hazrat Mirza, this rejection can be classed as a difference of opinion it is unanimous. Of course they are. If someone can be declared a Kaafir on the basis of rejecting an Israeli Messiah, then why is the one who rejects a Muhammadi Messiah not a Kaafir? If the "last of the caliphs" of Moosa Alaihes Salam has such a position that the one who denies him is a Kaafir, then surely the ones who rejects the "last of the caliphs" of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam is also a Kaafir.

If that Messiah was of such a status then this Messiah i. Mirza is also not inferior to him in any way. Does any Non-Ahmadi give his daughter to a Hindu or a Christian? You call them Kaafirs, but in this case they are better than you as despite being a Kaafir they don't give their daughter to another Kaafir; but you being an Ahmadi give your daughter to a Kaafir. Do you think of them as being from your nation?

Since the day you have become an Ahmadi, Ahmadiyyat has become your nation. If someone asks of your identity then you can state your caste etc, otherwise your nation, your identity is Ahmadiyyat. Then why do you leave Ahmadis and look for your nation in Non-Ahmadis? A believer is the one who rejects lies when truth becomes manifest. This is to do with the religion and no one has a right or say in this mater. Included in the Review of Religions Vol.

It is not possible for you to call both of them Muslims at the same time because the verse is explaining itself that if the claimant is not a Kaafir then the rejecter is. So for God's sake give up your hypocrisy and decide one way or another. Please note that in this passage Muhammad Ali Lahori has declared "Ahmadiyyat" to be a separate religion to "Islam" as "Christianity" is to "Judaism".

He also writes in the Review of Religions: "It is painful to see that the Muslims have become blind in their opposition to Mr.. Mirza, and they are repeating the same objections against him as were raised against Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam by the Christians. Similarly the Christians with blind antagonism are repeating and strengthening the same arguments which were raised by the Jews against Moosa Alaihes Salam.

It is sign of a true Prophet that objections raised against him apply to all other Prophets. When a name becomes common and customary then people use it despite it being lacking in reality. It has also been mentioned previously that this is the logical conclusion of the speeches and writings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Therefore he strictly forbade praying behind Muslims, to enter into matrimony with them and to perform their Janaza prayers. Thus it is not befitting of my nation to pray behind them.

Can a living soul pray behind the dead? As God has told me that it is Haraam and absolutely Haraam for you to pray behind someone who rejects and adopts disbelief, rather your Imam should be from amongst you. This is also hinted in the Hadeeth of Sahih Bukhari "Your Imam should be from amongst you", it means that when the Promised Messiah manifests himself then you would have to abandon all other sects who claim Islam and your Imam should be from your own sect. Thus you should do so.

Do you want to stand accused in front of Allah and lose all your good deeds? Someone asked him Mirza repeatedly and presented many excuses, but he Mirza told him to keep his daughter at home rather then giving her to a Non-Ahmadi. After his Mirza death he gave his daughter to Non- Ahmadis, therefore the first caliph removed him from the Imamat of the Ahmadis and expelled him from the group of Ahmadis.

The first caliph didn't accept his repentance for six years, but the man continued with his repentance and now I have accepted his repentance due to his sincerity. Non-Ahmadis reject the Promised Messiah therefore their funeral prayers shouldn't be offered but what about the funeral prayers of their young children, as surely they don't reject the Promised Messiah?

I ask the one who raises this question, "if this logic is correct then how come you don't pray for the children of the Hindus and the Christians"? And how many pray for them? The reality is that the Shariah regards the religion of the child to be the same as that of the parents. Thus a child of a Non-Ahmadi is a Non-Ahmadi, therefore his funeral prayers must not be offered. Therefore I couldn't decide to attend the prayer whose Imamat was done by the Maulana.

The whole world knows that Quaid-e-Azam was not an Ahmadi, thus there is nothing objectionable about a member of the Ahmadi Jamaat about not performing the funeral prayer of a Non-Ahmadi. The religion he adopted is not only different but diametrically opposed to that of Muslims in regards to beliefs, actions and thoughts.

His religion required him to be different then how could he attend the funeral prayer of Quaid-e-Azam? Their own demand of declaring themselves as a minority: All of the above makes it crystal clear that the Mirzais have a separate religion to Islam, they have nothing to do with Islam. They themselves admit that their religion is not the same as that of Muslims, and they are a separate sect apart from all other.

The officer replied that they are minorities while you are a sect. I replied that Parsis and Christians are religious sects and their rights have been accepted, and so should ours. You present me with one Parsi and in comparison I will present you with two Ahmadis. Clarification regarding the statements of the Mirzais: It would be prudent to point out that it is obvious from the course of action taken by the Mirzais during the past ninety years that in order to safe guard the interests of their Jammat, they don't hesitate to lie or to twist facts.

Clear statements have been produced where they unambiguously declare Muslims "Kuffar". More statements on this subject can be reproduced in addition to the ones already quoted. However despite numerous such claims in their speeches and writings both Jamaats declared in front of the "Muneer Enquiry Commission" that they don't consider Non-Ahmadis "Kaafirs".

Their statement was so contradictory to their previous speeches and writings that even the Judges regarded it to be incorrect, thus it was recoded in the report: "Regarding the question of Ahmadis considering other Muslims as Kaafir and outside the fold of Islam, they Ahmadis have clarified that these people the ones who oppose are not Kaafir and the word "Kuf r" as used in the Ahmadi literature for such individuals means "Kuf r-e-Khafi" minor infidelity or mere denial.

It is not intended that these people are outside the fold of Islam. There is lots of literature from the Mirzais in which they have blatantly expressed their belief regarding this issue. For example, their second caliph Mirza Basheeruddin Mahmood writes: "Even if swords are placed on both sides of my neck and I am told that there is no Prophet to come after Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam. I will still proclaim to him, "You are a liar, you are a deceiver, Prophets can come after him Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam , and surely they can.

Thus the statements issued by the Mirzais during troubled times Enquiries etc. It is vital to study and research their writings over their entire span of ninety years in order to understand their reality. They should either repent over all of their speeches, writings, beliefs and practically demonstrate that they are not following Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani or demonstrate courage and accept all of them and their logical conclusions.

A third position would be a tactic to avert troubled times and no responsible institution or individual seeking the truth should be mislead by it. Therefore the accusations of Kuf r shouldn't be levelled at them as they are not in contradiction of the belief of Finality of Prophethood. The shortest possible answer is, "to accept a person as truthful and worth following whose claim to Prophethood has been established to be a lie is none other then open Kuf r itself, let alone accept this man as the Promised Messiah, Mujaddid, Muhadith a man of inspiration or what-ever.

It has already been established that claim to Prophethood always produces two groups; one that accepts the claim to be true belongs to one religion and the other that rejects the claim belongs to another religion. Since it has been unambiguously established that Mirza' s claim was a lie and deception, then all groups accepting Mirza would be part of the same group thus stand denounced.

However in addition to this simple and straight forward answer, it will be prudent to elaborate on the reality of the Lahori Jamaat. It is an established fact there is no practical difference in the belief and religion of these two groups. If all such articles are collected it will form the shape of a book, however some of these are reproduced as follows: In the Magistrates court of Gordaspur on the 13 th of May he testified to the fact that Mirza was right in branding a person as a liar who calls Mirza a liar.

He writes: "A denier of the claimant of Prophethood is always a liar. Mirza is rightly a claimant to Prophethood. His followers accept his claim to be the truth and his enemies regard his claim to be a lie". Statement issued on Oath, as per monthly Furqan volume one January "God has closed all doors of Prophethood and Messengerhsip after Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam except for those who follow him in its entirety. The door is not closed on the ones that faithfully enlighten themselves by following him , and receive illumination from his morals and ethics.

Instead he remained in seclusion until Allah SWT ordered him to take allegiance of repentance Bay't from people. This is indeed the Sunnah way of the Prophets from old times. And the one in whose hand we have given our hand i. This is not only his personal belief, but also the belief expressed in an oath by the entire Lahori Jamaat. In the 16 th of October edition of this newspaper this solemn declaration was printed from the entire Lahori Jamaat.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. All of us Ahmadis who are associated with this paper swear by God who knows the secrets of the hearts that this is an accusation against us to spread misunderstanding. We accept the Promised Messiah as a reformer for this age, a Messenger and a Salvatore. However after the death of Hakeem Nuruddin the question of succession is raised and Muhammad Ali refuses to swear allegiance at the hands of Mirza Basheeruddin Mahmood refuses to accept him as the caliph and migrates from Qadiyan to Lahore.

In Lahore he lays the foundations of his own separate Jamaat. The differing Lahori Jamaat held its first meeting on the 22 nd of March , following resolution was adopted in this meeting: "We accept Sahibzada Mirza Basheeruddin Mahmood' s appointment to the extent that he may take allegiance from Non- Ahmadis to include them in the chain of Ahmadiyyat. However we don't deem it necessary for the existing Ahmadis to swear allegiance on his hands. We are willing to accept him as an Ameer with these conditions, but don't deem allegiance to be necessary, but also at the same time he will have no authority to interfere with the rights and privileges granted to the president of Anjuman-e- Ahmadiyya by the Promised Messiah himself.

The dispute was over the rights to be given to the president of Anjuman-e-Ahmadiyya rather then the caliph. So how can it be accepted that if allegiance is given to one, then you must continue to abide by it forever? Thus after the political differences the Qadiyani Jamaat made life difficult for the Lahori Jamaat. There is no difference between the Lahori and the Qadyani Jamaat: If the believes of the Lahori Jamaat are scrutinised specially the ones that they proclaimed after , even then it is clear that their position is nothing but a mere twisting of words and in practical terms there is no difference between them and the Qadyani Jamaat.

Just as the Qadyanis consider the "inspirations" of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as credible and worthy of following so do the Lahoris. They endorse the blasphemies of Mirza just as the Qadyanis. They also consider all the books of Mirza as authentic, binding and a source of legislation for their religion just as the Qadyanis. Just as the Qadyanis consider the opponents of Mirza "Kuffar", the Lahoris also agree to the "Kuf r" of the one who considers Mirza a liar and a Kaafir.

The only difference is that the Lahoris openly use the word "Prophet" for Mirza, whilst the Lahoris accept the usage of this word in its metaphorical sense. The Lahoris declare themselves to be a separate Jamaat to the Qadyanis on the basis of the following two differences in belief: 1 The use of the word "Prophet" for Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadyani. Lahori Jamaat claims that they don't consider Mr. But the meaning of Mujaddid is taken precisely to be the same as to what the Qadyanis call "Zilli" or "Buroozi" Prophet.

Thus Muhammad Ali Lahori in his book "An Nubuwwa Fil Islam"; which was written a while after the separation of the Lahori Jamaat writes: "The kind of Prophethood conferred upon a Muhaddath conversed by Allah is bestowed upon him due to total submission and utter devotion to the Prophet.

As it is written in Tawzeehul Maram that this kind is one of glad tidings, and doesn't contradict with the belief of finality of Prophethood. This is not only the claim of the Promised Messiah but the Ahadeeth also confirm it. Thus by promising Muhaddatheen and continuing glad tidings a principle is established that even though Prophethood is finished but a kind of Prophethood is still maintained.

This kind of Prophethood is glad tidings and it is given to people who follow Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam in totality and reach the stage of total devotion to him. All kinds of Prophethood end on him Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam except one, and all Shariats end on his Shariat except one. This kind of Prophethood is reached through total submission and devotion and it receives its light through him.

Now note that Prophethood is quoted to have ended here except one which is received through total submission of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadyani and writes: "In fact whatever he Mirza said though the wordings may differ at some places conclude that "Sahib-e-Khatim" the owner of the Khatam means that no seal other then his can confer grace upon someone. And he also said that "Sahib-e-Khatim" also means that it is possible to receive Prophethood through this seal which requires one to be an Ummati.

To be an Ummati means total submission and devotion to Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam , and then through the grace of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam a special kind of Prophethood can be received. What is this special Prophethood? He Mirza explained this at the end that it is "Zilli" Prophethood which means to receive revelation through the grace of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam and also said that this will continue till the day of Judgement.

Do you spot the difference? If not please note that the words are twisted to create a difference as follows: "The Promised Messiah has always established a principle in all of his writings earlier and later ones that the door of Prophethood is closed, but a kind of Prophethood can still be achieved.

It cannot be said that the door to Prophethood is open, but it can be said that a kind of Prophethood still remains and will remain till the day of Judgement. This kind of Prophethood is sometimes called glad tidings, partial Prophethood, Muhadathiet, or frequent discourse with Allah. But whatever it may be called; the sign of it is total submission and devotion to Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam.

In reality it is nothing but "Zill" reflection. Mirza and the Qadiyani with a minor twist of words? And if it is then what is the difference between the Lahori Jamaat and the Qadiyani Jamaat? This is the belif of not only Mr. Muhammad Ali Lahori but that of the entire Lahori Jamaat. During the debate between the Lahori and the Qadiyani Jamaat at Rawalpindi which was later printed by the shared expense of both Jamaats the representative of the Lahori Jamaat openly stated: "Hazrat i.

Thus his wife is the mother of the Believers, and this status is also a reflective one. The only difference is that the Lahori Jamaat regard Mirza as "Promised Messiah", "Mujaddid" or "Mehdi" which Mirza himself ascribed to Prophethood, and the Lahori Jamaat themselves used the word Prophet till , and due to the difference of opinion regarding caliphate they Lahoris dropped the usage of the specific word "Prophet".

The usage of the literal word has been dropped from the "common" writings for the sake of prevailing circumstances ; however it is still used in interpreting the words of Mirza. The former regards the founder of Qadiyanism as a Prophet, however the later has chosen to present Qadiyanism in a less controversial manner in regards to the Belief due to the prevailing circumstances. Harf-e-Iqbal: Pg We would like to point out another fabricated explanation often presented by the Lahoris.

They claim that Mr. Mirza used the word "Prophet" in a metaphorical manner and never realistically claimed Prophethood. They even invented a new definition of "Real Prophethood", which is diametrically opposed to the definition of "Prophethood" in the Shariah. They have imposed several conditions on a "Real Prophet" some of them are reproduced as follows: 1 A real Prophet is only the one who receives revelation from Jibraeel AS.

No one can be a real Prophet without the descent of Jibraeel AS upon him. An Nubuwwa Fil Islam: Pg 60 After presenting twelve such conditions they have proven that because these conditions are not present in Mr. Mirza therefore it is incorrect to ascribe the title of Prophet to him. However in the famous definition of Shariah it is not essential for a Prophet to bring forth a Book, or to have his revelations read in acts of worship, or even to have only Jibraeel AS bring revelations to him.

Thus the definition of the Lahoris is clearly a farce by which it would become easy to sometimes declare Mr. Mirza a Prophet and sometimes to deny him, because according to these conditions it can be said regarding some of the Prophets of Bani Israel that they were not "Real Prophets" as a book was never revealed to some of them, their revelations were not recited in acts of worship and some of them never brought a new Shariah, nevertheless in the eyes of Islamic Shariah they were Prophets.

It has already been explained that it is a mere twisting of words. The second basis is the issue of Takfeer. The Lahori Jamaat claims that it considers "Non-Ahmadis" Muslims, but again it is not as straight forward as it seems. No doubt according to them such people are only Faasiq and not Kaafir. These people are Kaafir according to the Lahori creed.

But the injunction for others in denial is different" Further on while elaborating on the injunction regarding the first group he writes: "Even the Promised Messiah didn't declare his rejection or the rejection of his claim to be Kuf r. But the reason of Kuf r was established to be that he called me a Kaafir by accusing me of being a liar thus according to the Hadeeth which returns Kuf r on the one who calls someone a Kaafir ; Kuf r was thus returned upon the accuser".

He continues: "Thus the meaning of the one who calls him a "Kaafir" or a "Liar" is the same, both do takfeer of the claimant i. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani. Now how many Muslims in the Islamic world don't consider Mirza a Kaafir? It is obvious that all those Muslims who denounce Mirza' s claim to be the Promised Messiah or the Prophet perform his takfeer by considering him a liar. Thus the fatwa of Kuf r by the Lahori Jamaat is applicable on all such people, because denouncing Mirza's claim to be the Promised Messiah or doing his takfeer is practically the same thing, as Mr.

Mirza himself writes: "Anyone who doesn't accept me does so on the basis of considering me to be a Liar". Therefore the fatwa which is applicable to those who consider him to be a Liar would also apply to all Non-Ahmadis. Mirza to be either a "Liar" or a "Kaafir". But even after the fatwa the fact of the matter doesn't change, because this fatwa implies that the Janaza prayer of the one who doesn't accept Mr.

Mirza shouldn't be read. Thus this fatwa endorses the current practice. Mirza a Liar. Qadiyanis say that they are Kaafir because of not accepting Mr. Mirza whilst the Lahoris say that they are Kaafir because "Kuf r" is returned to them i. Perhaps they should themselves sort out the "Philosophical differences" of the basis of declaring Muslims as Kuffar between themselves! Sometimes the Lahoris claim that our declaration of Kuf r is not the same which renders someone out of Islam; rather we use this word in relation synonymously to Fisq.

We ask the question that if this Kuf r is synonymous to Fisq then why is not appropriate to use word Kuf r for those Non-Ahmadis who don't consider Mr. Mirza a Kaafir or a Liar, when the Lahoris themselves declare them Faasiqs? Please view An Nubuwwa Fil Islam: Pg 25 1 Reasons for the Declaration of Kufr towards the Lahoris: The explanations mentioned above clearly indicate that the there is not a significant practical difference between the Lahori and the Qadiyani Jamaats in regards to fundamental beliefs of both groups.

The only difference is that of terminologies, and philosophical twists and interpretations. Therefore the reasons for declaration of Kuf r towards them Lahoris are as follows: 1 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is not the same Promised Messiah as prophesised by the Qur'an, Hadeeth, Ijm'a consensus and proven by his own beliefs and personal account of his life. Thus to regard him as such is to denounce the Qur'an, Hadeeth, and Ijm'a of this ummah.

Since the Lahoris hold Mirza to be the Promised Messiah, therefore they are outside the fold of Islam in the same way as the Qadiyanis. Thus the one who even regards him as a religious guide cannot be a Muslim. This belief cannot accepted as a part of Islam. The Lahori Jamaat endorses all such Kufriyat; and declares them to be worth following. These Mujaddids don't have a legal position, their personal words alone are not worthy of being followed, they don't declare themselves to be a Mujaddid, and they don't invite people to accept themselves as a Mujaddid and perform allegiance Bay't to them.

As a matter of fact it is not even necessary for people to recognise them as a Mujaddid, thus during the last fourteen hundred years the true number and the identities of Mujaddids have been a matter of difference of opinion. Thus if someone doesn't accept them as a Mujaddid, he is not deemed to be sinner, and last but not least they don't present their acts of reform as inspirational, and neither is the acceptance of their inspirations a part of Shariah.

The Lahoris Jamaat agrees to all of the above in regards to Mr. Thus their claim that they consider Mirza only a Mujaddid is nothing but deception. Mirza's Inspirations w Mr. The explanations of these charges are presented in the following pages. Some more profanities and blasphemies of the Qadiyanis: In addition to the clear violation of the Belief of Finality of Prophethood Khatme-Nubuwwat , Mr.

Mirza's writings are filled with many profanities and blasphemies. Thus one of the inspirations amongst the many self- proclaimed inspiration of 15 th of March claims: "You are of me; as my Burooz projection ". So this is in accordance to my inspiration which is in Aba'een-eAhmadiyya, "You are of me; like my own oneness and individuality".

He even had the audacity to attribute nearly all of the verses which were directed towards Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam to himself, and said that I was honoured with these titles through revelations these titles were directed towards Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam. Mirza has even ascribed this Surah to himself and writes, that in the verse "Inna Shaniaka Huwal Abtar" Surely, it is thy enemy who shall be without issue the issueless enemy being referred to is none other than my condemned, spiteful, ill-natured son of a Hindu and wicked enemy Saad-ullah New-Muslim.

The second caliph of the Qadiyanis Mirza Basheeruddin Mahmood made a speech to prove this point on the 27 th of December which was printed in Anwar-e-Khilafat after being revised by him , in the beginning he said, "The first issue is as to whether Ahmad was the name of the promised Messiah or Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam? My belief is that this verse is in regards to the promised Messiah Mirza and he was the Ahmad. But it is said in contradiction that Ahmad is the name of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam and to call someone else by this name is blasphemy to Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam.

However the more I ponder the more convinced I become and it is my belief that the word Ahmad as used in the Qur'an is in regards to the promised Messiah Mirza Ghulam Ahmad ". Anwar-e-Khilafat pgl8 Amritsar This shameless audacity reached to such an extent that one of the Qadiyani preachers Syed Zainul-Abideen Waliullah Shah delivered a speech entitled "His name Ahmad" in which has been separately published.

In this particular speech he not only claims the name Ahmad for Mirza but also attempts to prove that the glad tidings of victory mentioned in regards to the Sahaba were actually for the Qadiyani Jamaat and not the Sahaba. Sahaba had a longing for it but they couldn't receive it and you are the recipients of it" Ismuhu Ahmad pg74 Please ponder upon this open and blatant blasphemy towards Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam and the Sahaba. Was such a sick joke possible without having a Muslim name pretending to be Muslim?

Abusing the Prophets: The whole of the Muslim ummah believes in all of the previous Prophets and regards their honour and sanctity as part of Faith itself. Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam without a shadow of a doubt was superior to all of them but even he NEVER uttered a word which was not befitting their honour, stature and dignity.

Yet Mirza despite being at the bottom of the ladder of humanity made humiliating and disparaging remarks regarding them, some of them are as follows: 1 The Europeans have suffered much on account of their addiction to Alcohol.

They have done so in following Eesa Alahis Salam who used to consume Alcohol perhaps because of an illness or an old habit. Roohani Khazain Vol 19 71 Footnote 2 I have been suffering from diabetes for many years. I have to urinate 15 to 20 times daily sometimes a hundred times a day. Once a friend advised me to use opium as it is helpful for diabetes and there is no harm in using it as a medicine. After this writes: "Don't think this is poetic exaggeration it is the fact and the truth.

If God's assistance is not "proven" to be with me more than the son of Mary then I would be a liar". Eesa Alaihes Salam can't even dare to step on my pulpit mimbar. Roohani Khazain Vol 18 P I swear by the one that holds my life in His hands that if Messiah the son of Mary was deputed in my time then he wouldn't have achieved as much as I have and he certainly wouldn't have manifested the signs that I have.

Thus God gave Yahya from her earnings the title of Hasoor chaste or pure but this title wasn't awarded to the Messiah as these incidents didn't allow for it. Roohani Khazain Vol 18 P Footnote At this juncture it would be unjust not to mention a few incidents regarding the "righteousness" of Mr. Mirza himself: a A close disciple of Mr. Once she entered the room which Hazrat used as his study, there were some earthen pots in the corner of the room, she stripped naked and started bathing in the room.

Hazrat continued with his writing work and remained heedless of what she was doing". Mirza 's feet, and her husband Ghulam Muhammad writes, "Hazrat used to like the Marhooma deceased 's service of foot massage". Al-Fas 7 20 th of March c In addition, the details regarding other "unrelated" women who were present in Mr. Mirza 's house and appointed for performing various tasks can be found in "Seeratul-Mehdi" by Mirza Basheer Ahmad on pages 21 vol3 , vol3 , vol3 , 88 vol3 , vol3 and 35 vol3.

Hazrat informed me that once I went in there as well to see what goes on in there". Zikr-e-Habib written by Mirza Mufti Muhammad Sadiq pgl8 8 In addition to prove his superiority over all other Prophets he writes: "I proclaim thousands of open prophesies that have come true, and millions of people have witnessed them. If you attempt to find such an example in the life of the previous Prophets you will not be able to except in the case of Rasul- ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam.

He writes: 1 "Listen carefully! The need for the splendour of the name Muhammad Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam is no longer required, as it has already been manifested. The brightness of the sun cannot be endured any longer, the coolness of the moonlight is what is required which has reached me through Ahmad Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam.

Roohani Khazain Vol P 3 Moreover in Qaseeda-e-Aijaz which he has claimed to just as miraculous as the Qur'an a couplet has been written: "Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam was favoured with the sign of Lunar Eclipse but for me both the sun and moon were eclipsed, will you still deny? A living Ali is amongst you why do you leave him and look for the dead one? Malfoozat-Vol2P 4 Some of the ignorant Sahaba who were devoid of Derayat the power of conclusion from circumstantial evidence weren't even aware of this belief.

Roohani Khazain Vol 18 P Footnote 2 I am the martyr of Allah, but your Hussain Radiallaho Anhu was the martyr of the enemies, thus the difference is quiet open and obvious. Do you deny it? This is a calamity for Islam for verily its like a heap of filth next to Musk. Roohani Khazain Vol 18P 5 After abusing and humiliating the family of Rasul-ullah Sallaho Alaihe Wasallam , he confers the title of "Panj-tan the five holy ones on his progeny and writes, "My children are your blessing.

All of them are born with divine inspiration from you. These five who are from the progeny of Sayyidina Fatima Radiallaho Anha are indeed the panj- tan upon which are the foundations of the religion. Thus spiritually only the localities which get their nourishment from Qadiyan will survive.

Haqiqatur Ru'ya: pg45 2 Hazrat emphasized the connection with it, and said regarding those who don't visit here often that he has apprehensions regarding their faith. Thus whosoever doesn't maintain his connection with Qadiyan will be forsaken so be afraid lest one of you gets forsaken.

And then how long would this city nourish you with fresh milk, even the milk of the mothers runs dry, do you not see that the milk from the breasts of Makkah and Medina has gone dry? The place for Hajj is under the occupation of such people who consider it lawful to kill the Ahmadis, therefore God has made Qadiyan the place for Hajj. Durr-e-Sameen: pg56 Despite such blatant blasphemies in regards to the most respected personalities of Islam and Muslims i.

His disciples have been called "Sahaba-e-Kiram" and "Radiallaho Annum" has been added after their names, Mirza 's wife was called "Mother of the Believers", his successors were given the title of "Khulafa" and "Siddiqeen" and Qadiyan has been declared "land of Haram" and "mother of all cities", and they declared their annual congregation "Hajj".

With all these statements they Qadiyanis claim to be the only Muslims and if there is any Islam it is in their religion! Some of Mr. Mirza's Inspirations: At this juncture we would like to present some of the inspirations and life stories of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to the respected committee members of the National Assembly.

These are being reproduced here to inform and entertain the respected members and for them to fully ascertain the person considered to be a Prophet and a Messenger by the Mirzais. First we produce some of the inspirations without commenting or summarising them: 1 It is surprising that many of my inspirations occur in languages that I have no knowledge of such as English, Sansikarat, Hebrew etc. Mirza himself writes in Roohani Khazain Vol 23 P "It is quite absurd and illogical for a person to have a language and for his inspirations to occur in a different language, because this will be a cause of inconvenience for him.

What's the point of such inspirations which are beyond human comprehension? Mirza's inspirations which occurred in opposition to the Qur'an and his own opinion in languages which he couldn't understand: 1 "Eely Eely Lima Sabaqtani Eely Aawas" O my God! O my God! Why have you left me? Due to hasty descent the meaning of the last phrase "Eely Aawas" remained hidden. Then the soul of Eesa Alaihes Salam was infused into me and I was metaphorically impregnated.

The labour pains drove me towards the stem of a date-palm. After a few months which weren't more then 10 months I was made Eesa Alaihes Salam from Maryam, and from that day forth I was declared the son of Mary. But Almighty Allah SWT will show you his constant favours and you will not be in the state of menses but will bear a child, a child which will be like the children of Allah SWT. Thus a dua was made. On the 5 th of March I saw in a dream a man who appeared to be an Angel came in front of me and threw a lot of money before me.

I asked for his name, he said I don't have a name. I asked for his name again the second time and he said that his name was Tichi Tichi. On 24 th of February during a Kashf vision when Hazrat was ill a glass bottle was shown which was titled "Khaksar Peppermint". One of the close disciples of Mr. Mirza, Qazi Yaar Muhammad B. Then two English sentences were received hastily whose words cannot be authenticated to this day but they are "I Love You, I shall give you large party of Islam.

I am with you. I shall help you, I can what I will. Afterwards another inspiration came with such ferocity that the whole body shook, "We can what we will do", at this time due to the accent and pronunciation it seemed that it was an Englishman who was standing besides me.

Even though it was frightening but felt wonderful good. After understanding the meaning the soul felt consoled and wonderful, and the inspirations often occur in the English language. Your glory is written in the Gita. I am that Krishna, and this is not my personal claim but God has revealed to me many times that you are the Krishna of the last ages, you are the king of the Aryans. Mirza's Prophesies: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani writes, "Evil minded people should know that the best criterion to judge our truthfulness or falsehood is our Prophesies" Roohani Khazain Vol 5 P We would like to point out only two of Mr.

Mirza's prophesies as an example regarding which Mr. Mirza tried his utmost, even to the extent of giving bribe, and trying black magic and incantations but they were never fulfilled. Marriage with Muhammadi Begum: Mr.

Mirza's cousin had a daughter by the name of Muhammadi Begum. Her father came to Mr. Mirza for some personal matter. First Mr. Mirza tried to get rid of him by making some excuses, but he kept on insisting. At this point Mr. Mirza claimed an inspiration and prophesied that "I have received an inspiration from God that your matter will be solved on the condition that you marry your older daughter to me".

Mirza he went away. Afterwards Mr. Mirza tried his utmost to the extent of threats, the carrot and the stick approach, bribe but he refused to budge to Mr. Mirza's demand. Eventually Mr. Mirza declared this to be a challenge: "I declare this prophesy to be criterion for my truthfulness or falsehood, and I am only saying this after receiving news from God.

Mirza's extreme efforts he never got married to Muhammadi Begum. She was eventually married to a man named Sultan Muhammad. Mirza again prophesised: "This prophesy i. Mirza made dua as such: "If the prophesies of my marriage with the daughter of Ahmad Baig are indeed from you then O Lord prove them to be true in such a way that people are convinced of the truth. And O Lord if these prophecies are not true then give me a disgraceful and dishonourable death. She was never meant to be married to Mr.

Mirza and she never did. Mirza died of cholera on the 26 th of May Hayat-e-Naasir: pgl4 What happened afterwards? During that time one of Muhammadi Begum's real uncle had tried to arrange for the matrimony of Muhammadi Begum and Mr. Mirza but it didn't succeed. Her uncle used to travel between Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur in a horse driven cart and was expectant of some reward from Hazrat Mirza. Since the arrangement of Muhammadi Begum's matrimony was in his hands, Hazrat Mirza had also promised him some remuneration.

But I very humbly state that this man had bad intentions and wanted to get some money off Hazrat Mirza , because this very man and his accomplices became the means of Muhammadi Begum getting married to someone else. Mirza himself writes: "We consider such Peers spiritual guides and Mureeds disciples worse then a dog and persons with a deplorable way of life who fabricate prophesies, and then try to or make them come true with their hands, and their own tactics.

Inna Lillahi wa Inna Ilaihi Raji'oun. Mirza had a written dialogue debate with a Christian priest by the name of Abdullah Atham in Amritsar for 15 days. When the dialogue remained inconclusive Mr. Mirza issued a prophecy at the end on the 5 th of June which is summarised as follows: "Each day of the dialogue will count as a month, thus in 15 months the opponent should be chastised in "Haawiya" Hell.

If this doesn't come true then I am prepared for anything, humiliation, to have a noose around my neck or for even to be hanged. I was about five or five and a half years old at the time but I still remember the scenes. As the last day of the prophecy approached duas were made for Atham's death with anguish and anxiety. I hadn't even witnessed the Ma'tam grievance of Muharram with such bewailing and lamentation. In one corner Hazrat Mirza was busy making duas whilst in the other corner where the first caliph used to hold his clinic and Maulvi Qutub-uddin sits these days some of the young men sat down and started wailing and crying like mourning women.

Their cries were heard for hundreds of yards, and all of them had the same dua on their lips "Ya Allah may Atham be dead". But despite all these wailings Atham didn't die. According to Agricultural Census, there are 5. The large farms are only 7 per cent of the total farms accounting for 40 per cent of the total cultivated area.

There has been further subdivision of farms because of inheritance and transfer. Since land in agriculture production process is natural agent, therefore decreasing size of holding has detrimental effect on investment, farm productivity and farm income resulting in 52 per cent poor Pakistanis. In particular the research focuses on the factors which when geared can lead towards the development of agriculture sector through provision of financial services and technical assistance quality of seed, use of fertilizers, testing of soil, irrigation and storage are few of the provisions.

The paper will further examine the role and scope of Musharakh in addressing the problem of farmers. The recent food crisis gave indication that there is something wrong with actual production and estimation of policy makers. Moreover, there is need for rural development to overcome this crisis in future and motivate people to be part of this development.

Exploiting properly, the unique features of Islamic finance with appropriate adaptability, without compromising Shariah principles will be critical to the growth and promising future of Islamic industry. Agricultural finance in Pakistan: an Overview The role of agriculture in Pakistan economy is of pivotal nature. Due to diverse geographical and climatic conditions the country has tremendous potential for growth and development in agriculture.

However, adequate and timely financial assistance to the farmers will improve production potential of agriculture sector in the country. The modern concept of agricultural credit envisages establishment of an efficient institutional credit system to serve as a package of credit, supplies and knowledge for the overall strength of the farmers who at present suffer from low productivity and financial insecurity.

A successful credit evaluation system, therefore, should have the basic ingredients to provide adequate amount at the right time and in the right form to help farmers in making a productive use of loan funds. However, Pakistan is facing food shortage though it is the one of largest producer of agriculture goods as mentioned above. Facilitation to this sector by expanding agricultural credit at the grass root level is a credible effort towards economic and rural development.

All these factors in turn stem from lack of funds and technical know how. Dawn leading English newspaper reported that about 81 per cent farmers being small are not in a position to remove all these constraints because of lack of funds. This affects his ability to adopt new technologies hence, the production.

To increase agricultural production it is imperative to increase the level of use of agricultural inputs Hasan, According to World Bank that agricultural growth has substantial benefits for low income farmers and tenants approximately 37 percent of the rural poor , but another source of demand besides agricultural growth linkages is needed to rapidly raise the earnings of the rural non-farm sector. Reason of hesitation is that cost of production has increased over time and it is hard for small farmer to meet the costs of production and servicing of debt.

Behind the curtains of food crisis this phenomenon exists that to meet cost of production farmer prefers to grow cash crops instead of food crops. There is a need to diversify the sources of growth by promoting micro and small- scale enterprises particularly in the agriculture and informal sector.

Agriculture is a sector which is not documented nor regulated and adverse effect on demand and supply of agriculture products is not fully understood. If some crop or vegetable gave cash profit to some farmer, all the farmers will grow it next year and because of excess supply demand will decrease and farmers will be in loss. Documentation and regulation is mandatory that will not only help farmer to cultivate crop that has demand in market but will also helps to export any excess of food commodities.

Alternative Islamic Modes of Financing for Agriculture The economy transforms into one in which service and productivity will drive growth. Different sources of financing are required whereby risks should be borne by those most able to absorb them although traditional lending on interest rate sources of funding through the banking institutions continue to be the main source of financing for economic activities.

Agricultural Census stated that there are 5. April — June 35 of conventional system. One of the disadvantages of this is that credit controls and interest rate ceilings encouraged banks to favor large farms even more than their natural disposition to do so and other constraints include unequal distribution of financial resources Mohsin, To improve productivity and income of tillers of the soil who constitute more than three fourth of the farming community appropriate measures should be taken on great priority basis for a country like Pakistan.

The financial sector infrastructure needs to be changed to accommodate the substantial financing requirements of formal and informal sector of agriculture. Alternative of conventional system can be Islamic banking which is interest free and has its own benefits. Interest has no place in an Islamic economy.

The Islamic alternative is that financing either is free of any return or it should bear the risk of loss as well if it expects to earn a return Khan, The Islamic finance which operates on modes other than fixed interest rate aims to share profits from activities in the real sector. Hence, financing of development through such modes is likely to avoid undue economic and financial burden on the beneficiaries. Its emphasis on real sector should also contribute in avoiding instabilities in the financial markets.

Islamic banking can have significance in micro finance sector. The failure of government support programs to achieve level of growth in small-scale business in the formal sector is due to number of interrelated factors and inherent nature of interest rate finance is the most important one Mohsin, The author discussed in detail Musharkah and Ijrah their characteristics and their relevance with agriculture and on basis of discussion reasons are given for preference of Musharakh over other of finance discussed.

The shares offered by each one can vary. In general, it may be money or labour and can be the trust of the people Siraj, Offer and acceptance is the cornerstone of the partnership contract and can be of three types: 1. Capital partnership: In this form of partnership, two or more individuals share their capital stipulating that whatever profits they earn are shared among them. The contract may be limited or unlimited Zuhayli, Credit partnerships: In this form of partnership, two or more creditworthy individuals join in a credit purchase and follow it with a cash sale, thus sharing the profits according to the conditions stipulated in the contract Zuhayli, Physical labour partnerships: In this form of partnership, two or more individuals agree to embark on a joint labour project e.

The partners may be of similar or different professions Zuhayli, Ijaz Ahmed Khan at Islamic Relief Conference said that the most obvious advantage of Musharakh is the protection of the lender against inflation. Ahmed Ahmad provides the example of how the Sudanese Islamic Bank have developed a Musharakh contract in which the bank provides farmers with certain fixed assets such as ploughs, tractors, irrigation pumps, etc. Since it is a partnership contract, there is no need of collateral or guarantees other than personal guarantees.

Now it is practiced by Islamic Banks for home mortgages especially. April — June 37 development and use of water resources and developing a marketing link for the farm output Bendjilali and Khan, It can be best applied for installing tube wells since formal financial institutions fail to improve water availability as cost of capital increases that make impossible for small farmers to utilize it.

DM is not only cheap but it shares risk with farmer. Another land development agreement is known in Tunisia whereby the owner of land and the land developer enters into a contractual arrangement for the development of land. After the development of land according to agreed specifications a piece of land is given in reward to the developer Khan and Bendjilali, Ijarah An Ijarah is a contract pertaining to usufruct with compensation as defined by Hanafis Zuhayli, Conditions of conclusion 2.

Executability 3. Validity 4. Bindingness 4. The client pays a rent and buys out the partnership share. Ijarah is a contemporary lending methodology that has been increasingly adopted by Islamic lenders and is similar to the concept of leasing. Under this arrangement an entrepreneur short of funds may approach the financier to fund the purchase of a productive asset.

It is best suitable for agriculture related equipment tractor, thrasher and trolleys etc. Banks can build storage houses for commodities. The user may be implied to be a little better off in Ijarah financing than in trading-based financing because of fewer repayment problems as in case of loss the lessor will simply take his asset back and the lessee will only be obliged to worry about the unpaid rent Khan, 4.

Asghr Nadeem Syed a columnist in leading Urdu Newspaper Jang gave suggestion of partnership in agriculture in order to increase productivity and share risk and financial burden with farmers. Alleviation of constraints which are obstacle for optimal utilization of resources is major concern of Islamic economic system and guideline of Muhammad PBUH can be inferred as: 1.

The best strategy of poverty alleviation is to enable the concerned people to participate in the market by improving their capabilities 2. The best indicator of poverty alleviation is to make the poor permanent owners of certain income generating real assets.

The role of guideline, promotion and consultancy is vital in the alleviation of poverty Bendjilali and Khan, Musharakh is the best tool to the guidelines provided by Muhammad PBUH. Islamic credit technology has evolved through the growth of the Islamic modes of financing and it is a great break through for small farmers and bankers.

To enhance the capabilities of farmers to participate in the market for generation of productive lands and enhance the productivity of land Musharakh can be best alternative over conventional modes of financing. Bank being partner on Musharakh basis can train people for optimal use of resources because it will have stake in specific project.

Musharakh can bridge the gap of negative trade off between credit and production as result of regression showed. On the direction of causality between financial development and economic growth Jahri stated that empirical evidence shows that financial development generally leads to economic growth and financial deepening contributes to economic growth more in developing countries than in industrial countries.

The intermediary-based view emphasizes the importance of intermediaries in project identification, resource mobilization, monitoring firms and managing risks. They are more effective in countries which are at an early stage of development than market- based financial systems Jahri, Monetary economists Friedman, have established that a zero nominal interest rate is a necessary condition for the optimal allocation or resources Jahri, Without interest more real resources can be directed to consumption and investment Jahri, as in general equilibrium models, zero interest rate is both necessary and sufficient for allocative efficiency Wilson, ; Cole and Kocherlakota, 5.

Proposed Model The traditional approaches to rural finance tried to intervene in the open market process Khan, Concessional interest rates demotivate the financial institutions who considered rural loans to be risky and unremunerative. As a result financial institutions became lukewarm in their efforts to achieve the objective of rural development. Their main concern was to safeguard their capital Khan, Simultaneously, the poor were discouraged from contacting the financial institutions because of lengthy procedures, long waiting times and heavy bank charges.

A very important factor in the failure of rural finance to achieve its primary objective has been interest on loans. Interest- bearing finance adds to the cost of production. The interest rate is a severe limiting factor on the investment opportunities available to poor. The investment is inversely correlated to the rate of interest. The higher the rate of interest the lower the volume of investment because it lowers the overall profitability of the business enterprise, and regression analysis proves this statement.

If we increase the volume of investment we have to find a solution to the problem of interest. The farm productivity can be improved by preparing land for optimal use which necessitates leveling land, preparing it for maximum crop production, ensuring optimal development and use of water resources and developing marketing link for the farm output.

This requires an initial investment outlay for which suitable Islamic modes of finance can be applied. Islamic bank has ability to diversify its portfolio and hence ensure a certain return R on its investment with negligible risk. The diversification of investment in a large proportion enables bank to reduce risk significantly. Under this agreement both partners one ansar, one muhajir worked on these joint farms in turn on alternate days. Moreover, with two families working at one farm turn by turn farming became labour intensive which made the farms more productive.

Furthermore, this system of joint farming proved a useful system for land consolidation and prevented fragmentation of land Hussain, Land is considered as one of the most secure assets and owner- operated farms are still considered to be the most efficient forms of land utilization Gulaid, Working of Musharakh between bank and farmer Bank is a large financial institution and possesses huge resources either to establish advisory board or outsource advisory service.

Professional advice not only helps to increase production of land but also helps to manage demand and supply of agriculture products. It gives economies of scale to bank being partner with farmer. Cost will be divided among all farmers and will benefit farmer as being small landowner it is beyond his capacity to seek professional advice.

The large farms are only 7 per cent of the total farms accounting for 40 per cent of the total cultivated area Khan, Any XTY Islamic bank set up agriculture board consists of agriculture specialists of crop, fertilizer, pesticide, seeds and water.

The board will design strategies for levelling land, preparing it for maximum crop production, ensuring optimal development and use of water resources along with usage of which kind of fertilizers, seeds and pesticide to use when to use and how to use. How it works For optimal utilization of resource land, inputs, capital goods and water a farm must be some large area so, it will not only make farm more productive but generate employment as well.

There will be three parties to the structure: bank as finance provider for agriculture inputs, farmer as partner with land and labor and third one is investor person or another bank who will provide services tractors, storage houses, transportation etc on basis of Ijarah and diminishing Musharakh tube wells and turbines.

To develop one large farm of 25 acres bank will join some farms of small area. To avoid any conflict of interest bank will document each piece of land owned by farmer. The following features can be noted with specific reference to mobilization of human resources in agriculture: 1. Musharakh entitles the capital to earn a return only by bearing some of the risk associated with the activity. It makes farm labour intensive which makes farm more productive 2. Khan, Financing Fixed-Asset Agriculture Machinery, transportation and storage houses Fixed assets are those that provide service over a period of time.

They are deferred expense and determine the production capacity of a firm. A cash outlay is made at one point of time but benefits accrue over a period of time. Fixed asset formation has two distinct characteristic features. April — June 43 a short period of time Mohsin, In order to accommodate these aspects of fixed assets formation contemporary Islamic financing technique Ijarah can be adopted to finance tractors, trolleys, thrashers, godowns to store food etc.

There is a wide scope for Ijarah either by bank or cooperatives who want to establish Ijarah Company. These banks were created on cooperative basis. Some time collective fines would be paid out of the money deposited into these banks on cooperative basis Hussain, Agriculture Machinery and Transportation Agricultural machinery is one of the most revolutionary and impactful applications of modern technology. The truly elemental human need for food has often driven the development of technology and machines.

Over the last years, advances in farm equipment have transformed the way people are employed and produce their food worldwide. Introduction to low cost and locally available transportation lowers transportation cost for agriculture and road sector. Local labor can be productively employed on roads to supplement their subsistence from farm livelihood. Ijarah is a lease contract where contract transfers the services or use of a property for certain time.

Since these are people of , live in a village it would be much simpler for them to recover these dues at harvest time than for the financial institution. It will enhance utilization of assets at optimal level and would give economies of scale to asset owners.

Ijarah firm then sub-rent this equipment to partner bank of farmer for specific period and time. One person will start a business of capital goods repair, dbaha cheap food seller. In this connection he urged the people to attend the development work on self- help basis. This demonstrates that water development is a collective effort. Joint working is not only effective, it saves time and cost as well. Water resource development has remained hampered due to lack of non-availability of proper finance.

Formal private financial institutions have no rural spread in general. Development of Diminishing Musharakh has made water resource development easier. Farmer utilizes the tube well and pays agreed rental amount. With diminishing Musharakh bank can work with farmer like land development agreement is known in Tunisia whereby the owner of land and the land developer enters into a contractual arrangement for the development of land.

In proposed model developer is bank and it can sell its land to its partner farmer. This approach will increase the production and utilization of human capital and generate employment. Conclusion Agriculture plays a vital role in the agricultural and rural economies of the developing world like Pakistan. It not only produces food directly it also provides foreign exchange to country. However, concessional interest rates de motivated the financial institutions who considered rural loans to be risky and un-remunerative.

Islamic modes of finance have ability to overcome short comings of conventional system. Musharakh can work well on agriculture since it will give returns semi-annually which is a limitation when it applied to corporations. Giving the finances to farmers will help the farmers in improving their productivity and Islamic banks can take advantage of their peculiar nature of operations which other conventional banks cannot enjoy Khan, Consequently, Islamic banks can successfully operate in a sector where conventional banks have failed despite all the support from governments as well as from international bodies Khan, Business and Finance Review.

Financial Transactions in Islamic Jurisprudence Vol1. Economics of Diminishing Musharakh. Agricultural Extension in Islamic Cultural Milieu. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. Iqbal, Manwar. A Guide to Islamic Finance. London: Risk Books. Iqbal, Munawar and Khan,Tariqullah. Financial Engineering and Islamic Contracts. Khan, Muhammad Fahim. Mohsin, Muhammad.

Economics of Small business in Islam. Handbook on Islam and Economic Life. Islamic economic systems. Underdevelopment, Poverty and Inequality in Pakistan. Reich Michal and J. Zakat might be the very important source of revenue for the Muslim states particularly for the poor Muslim states. This paper elaborates the commandments of Almighty Allah with respect to collection and distribution of zakat along with practice in the early Islamic period and highlights the problems and issues of Muslim states regarding collection and distribution of zakat particularly with respect to lack of confidence of the people upon the public officials.

This behavior is the biggest hindrance in an effective utilization of this large source of revenue in the Muslim states. This paper gives suggestions how to build and revive the confidence of the people as they can think to use this money on a large scale rather on a small scale with the peace of mind that their money will be utilized and distribute more efficiently and effectively.

This paper deals this issue not only on the national level but also on international level keeping in view the constructive usage for the prosperity of the Muslim population living both in Muslim or non-Muslim states. It is the mandatory monetary obligation upon the wealth of Muslims on yearly or other specified timely basis according to specified ratio or quantity.

It is the essential element of the economic system of Islam. As Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam, the refusal from zakat and its obligation would result in exit from Islam and that person would not more a Muslim. According to Imam Navavi, if a person, who has recently embraced Islam or lived somewhere else far from Islamic culture and environment, refuses the obligation of zakat then first the obligation of zakat in Islam and its reasons would be communicated to that person.

If he does not change its attitude and opinion even though the importance and obligation of zakat has been communicated to him then the order of infidelity Kufr would be imposed upon him but if a person who lives in a Muslim society and knows very well about zakat and its obligation in Islam and he commits a sin of refusal in this respect then he becomes infidel and the order of apostate would be imposed upon that person.

He will be asked for apology in this respect and if he does not apologize and commit their sin, he will be killed because this act is considered as a blasphemy of Allah and His Messenger SAW. In the era of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, the war was conducted against the group of people who refused to pay zakat. To tackle this problem, Abu Bakr opined to conduct a war against such persons. This opinion was supported by majority of the companions of Prophet Muhammad SAW and the war was conducted against them.

Those companions also participated in the war who did not agree with this act at the initial level. The verses with respect to inducement of zakat were revealed when Prophet Muhammad SAW was in Makkah but at that time, zakat was no more than just a good deed and no detailed commandments, even amount, were in place. There has been a dispute between scholars upon the period of obligatory implementation of zakat but the majority of the scholars agree upon that the zakat was made compulsory after the conquest of Makkah in 8th Hijri and Prophet Muhammad SAW appointed the zakat collectors in Muharram, 9th Hijri.

For every tribe and region, separate collectors were appointed from their respective regions. The state's role in the collection and distribution of zakat is best supported by the verse, , which mentions "the workers on zakat" as one of the categories to whom zakat is distributed.

This verse is clearly directing towards the organized team of collectors that must be formulated for the purpose of zakat collection. Moreover, Allah says, "Out of their wealth take a sadaqah so thou might purify and sanctify them". Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. The above-mentioned sayings of the Prophet Muhammad SAW clearly indicates that the ruler must be vigilant and honest in the matters of the State as he is assigned the task for the effective utilization of resources of the State that lead to the welfare of the State.

As far as collection and distribution of zakat is concerned, the Prophet Muhammad SAW was very strict in protecting the public funds of zakat, and allowed no non- deserving to take benefit from the collection of zakat. Bukhari, Muslim and others report from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet Muhammad SAW told Mu'adh, when he sent him to Yemen, "Inform them that Allah obligates sadaqah on their wealth, to be taken from the rich among them and rendered to the poor among them.

Those who refuse to pay are forced to do so. Additionally, there are several sayings which instruct workers on zakat, who were called al su'at or al musaddiqin. There are many other sayings that refer to such appointments. The Prophet Muhammad SAW sent the best of his companions as zakat collectors to each region with proper guidelines and instructions with respect to treatment with zakat payers and the collection from the assets of the people. The appointment of zakat collectors was necessary as they could guide people towards the payment of zakat and take the full amount and assets that were obligated upon the certain people in the way of payment of zakat.

In this way, those people who might hide their assets will also pay zakat. The companions of Prophet Muhammad SAW opined that zakat must be given to the ruler of the Islamic state even though the character of the ruler is not ideal or matters of the state are not being run in accordance with the teachings of Islam. They were of the view that the collection and distribution of zakat is one of the responsibilities of the state and it is the duty of the people to give zakat to the government as the Prophet Muhammad SAW guided and ordered Ummah in this respect.

If the ruler or government will not fulfill its duty, he will be answerable before Allah. The above mentioned verses, sayings and opinions of Companions indicate that in principle, zakat must be administered by the Islamic government. Apparent assets are those that are visible and can easily be counted by people other than the owner.

They include agricultural crops and livestock. Non-apparent assets are those that can easily be hidden away by the owner. They include money and business assets. In the era of Prophet Muhammad SAW and first two Caliphs of the Ummah, Abu Bakr and Umar, there was no distinction considered between apparent wealth amwal-e- zahira and non-apparent wealth amwal-e-baatina of the people while collecting zakat from the people and zakat was deducted on both types of wealth.

He realized the fact that if the zakat collectors would investigate the non-apparent wealth of the people, privacy of the places would be affected and the people would feel uncomfortable. Due to this reason, he decided to take zakat only on those assets of the people that were disclosed in general. There were of two types i.

The responsibility for the payment or distribution of zakat on remaining assets was delivered to the respective owners. At that time, the wealth became apparent wealth and there was no need for searching the wealth of people at their private places. In the light of the explanation of jurists, there are two conditions to call the wealth as apparent wealth: 1. No need to investigate the certain wealth at private places.

The wealth which is disclosed before the government and the wealth is considered under the protection of the government. It is evident from the books of fiqh that Khulafa-e-Rashideen the four caliphs of the Ummah and the rulers afterwards deducted the amount of zakat at the time of distribution of annual salaries and stipends etc.

If the zakat became due, he deducted zakat otherwise not. Some narrations also show the continuance of procedure for collection of zakat in the era of Ali as well but it is evident that zakat on non-apparent wealth was deducted only upon the wealth of those people whose salaries were paid by Bait-ul-Maal. It is narrated by Hubaira bin Yaryam about the practice of Abdullah bin Masood while payment of salaries that he collected zakat of salaries also.

In this way, he collected 25 upon each thousand. This collection was done after giving the possession of salary to the person due to the aspect of ownership in the payment of zakat. Therefore, Abdullah bin Masood handed over the salary first and then collected zakat upon certain salary amount. The practice of collection of zakat at the time of payment of salaries and stipends etc. It must be noted here that the above-mentioned practice was not confined to only the distribution or payment of salaries and incentives only.

As far as non-apparent wealth is concerned, the ruler has quite absolute right either to collect zakat or deliver the responsibility for payment of such zakat to the owner. It is the discretion of the certain ruler keeping in view the conditions and circumstances of the certain era and financial matters of the public and traders. In case of non-payment of zakat upon non-apparent wealth, the ruler can take concrete action. According to Islamic guidelines, the state has full authority to collect zakat and he can send people for verification of the wealth of people.

Now, if there is any expedience maslaha , the state may transfer his responsibility to owners of wealth but in those areas where is not any expedience maslaha , the state must collect zakat as evident from the above-mentioned practices of the early Islamic period. The state may consider the fact of maslaha according to the conditions of the society to avoid any action that may cause disturbance or disorder in the society.

In the period of Prophet Muhammad SAW , the zakat was collected without any discrimination of apparent and non-apparent wealth but one point must be considered here that to collect zakat on animals and agricultural production, the verification officers were sent but in case of cash and commercial wealth, the order was to pay zakat themselves to the government.

The zakat on non-apparent wealth the wealth inside the cities was paid by the owners themselves to the government. In case of non-payment of zakat on non-apparent wealth and in cases of declaration of non-apparent wealth as apparent wealth, the zakat may be collected.

Hanafites argue that zakat on non-apparent assets should be left to the owners to distribute. If the state is informed that owners of wealth in certain areas do not pay zakat on their non-apparent assets, its payment can be enforced by the public law enforcement authority.

Zakat on trade assets may be collected by the state if they are being transported from one place to another, but if trade assets are not transported, they are treated like other non-apparent assets. Malikites argue that zakat must be given to a just government without differentiation between apparent and non-apparent assets. It is evident from the above-mentioned discussion that the Islamic State may formulate zakat policies keeping in view the circumstances and situation of the society but it is the absolute right of the government to collect zakat from the people on all zakatable assets without any discrimination.

Muslim scholars agree that zakat should be distributed to deservants in the same geographical area from which it was collected. When the Prophet Muhammad SAW sent zakat officers to any area or region, he instructed them to distribute to the poor in the same region.

The Prophet Muhammad SAW gave instruction to Mu'adh, its authenticity is agreed upon : "Zakat is to be distributed to the poor among them. He divided Yemen into regions such that zakat was collected and distributed within each region autonomously. The author of al Mughni says "since zakat is meant to enrich the poor, permitting transporting it leaves the poor of that region in need.

Imran bin Husain, a Companion, was appointed zakat officer at the time of the Umayyads. When he returned from his mission, he was asked "Where is the money? He was asked for his account by the governor and his answer was, "I took from the rich and gave to the destitute. Farqad al Sabkhi says, I took zakat due on my wealth to distribute it in Makkah.

One year Mu'adh sent 'Umar one third of the zakat collected in that year. I assigned you to take from the rich and render to the poor. They exchanged statements similar to the previous year. In the third year, Mu'adh sent 'Umar all the collected zakat. The brief information regarding the functions of zakat workers are as under: 2.

The collection agencies must try to gather the data to the possible extent. Due to this update, those people, who will be avoiding to pay zakat will be identified and appropriate action might be taken against them. The zakat workers have the responsibility to collect zakat on the following items and assets: A. Gold equivalent to Silver equivalent to Money and Business Assets: 2. Rikaz i. Applicable according to the kind and number of animals.

He divided it into eight parts. The first two categories are very often discussed together since, by definition, they are close to each other. Some others consider that the poor is in a worse situation than the needy. The definitional issue is merely scholastic or linguistic but it is a fact that both the poor and needy cannot support all their basic needs by their own means, and they require necessary support. Workers in the collection and distribution of zakat are the third category of zakat recipients.

This emphasizes the autonomy of the zakat institution. Qur'an immediately mentions this category after the poor and the needy and it is a clear indication that zakat collection and distribution are functions of an organization of paid employees.

It is part of the social structure of the Islamic state and not an individual practice or an activity of a certain religious body. Those whose hearts are being reconciled include persons who have recently been brought to Islam, or who need to strengthen their commitment to this faith, and individuals whose evil can be anticipated or who can benefit and defend Muslims.

Distribution to this category is not a job of an individual but it is a political decision and only the state can determine the need at a given time for reconciling hearts and the qualifications of deservants under this title. Liberating Slaves: This category is to liberate slaves by purchasing them from their masters and get them free. In the present world as the slavery does not exist, this amount might be used for those Muslims who are fighting against the enemy in different parts of the world and captives in non-Muslim territories etc.

The sixth category of zakat deservants is persons under debt. It does not matter whether debts arose from natural catastrophes, business practices, borrowing to spend on family needs or from pledging compensational funds in the process of reconciling differences and disputes between individuals, communities and tribes, especially blood money. By the same token, debts on deceased persons may also be included in this category. The seventh category of zakat distribution is expressed in the Qur'an as "fi sabil Allah" [in the way of Allah].

The linguistic meaning of the term is quite obvious. Ibn al Athir did analysis of the term and shows two important points: 1. The term originally means every action intended to serve the cause of Allah, including all good deeds, individual and collective. The term is commonly understood to mean fighting for the sake of Allah. All scholars agree that fighting for the sake of Allah is included in this category. Their differences arise on whether this category may also cover other good deeds intended to please Allah.

Wayfarer: According to the majority of scholars, the wayfarer, ibn al Sabil, is the traveler on the way from one place to another. Ibn Zaid says, 'The wayfarer is the traveler, rich or poor, who has lost his means of expenditure or depleted them while on the road. Helping this person is obligatory. The rich. Those capable of earning.

Disbelievers and apostates who fight against Islam, and, according to the majority of jurists, People of the Pledge i. Children, parents, and wives of Zakat payers. The hereditary monarchy begun with the evils of political illegitimacy, with absolute power and without accountability, which were the clear violation of the moral imperative of khilafah or the ideal political system according to Islamic posture.

It is a fact that the ideal political structure, as laid down by Khulafa-e- Rashideen, was badly affected as there is no place of monarchy in Islam. Due to the reason of this dissatisfaction, there were also revolts, but these proved unsuccessful. At the outset, they came with the ambition to abolish the ills that Umayyads had left but it is a natural factor of hereditary monarchy that due to having full authority and lack of fear of accountability, this type of ruling cannot show itself the best ruling system.

If one ruler is good, it is not a guarantee that the succeeding ruler will be the same or better than the present. Once again, due to illegitimate activities of Abbasids, dissatisfaction among the public caused revolts which were mercilessly crushed.

It is a worth mentioning factor that although the irregularities on the part of the government were increasing but it is a fact that in the dynasties of Umayyad and Abbasid, the zakat system was continued and run by the state and it is also a fact that even after splitting of Muslims into a number of regions and areas, zakat system was being run by the government. The rulers attached the title of khalifah in different dynasties i.

Other than khalifah, the words sultan and malik became common. One of the first things to happen was loss of control over public finances. Actually, the rulers were ruling as a king and thought the public finance and treasury as their own wealth, state as its own property and people as their slaves. They thought their ruling as their absolute right.

That thinking was leading to luxurious life of the monarchs with the cruel and irresponsible utilization of the public wealth. The desired thinking was forgotten that they should be custodians rather than owners of that wealth and resources. Due to these wrongdoings, the Muslim history is evident that Muslims faced the political and power decline in almost all parts of the world and external powers or non- Muslims captured most of the regions and abolished our rest of the social and economic structure that had been protected to some extent and Muslims were enforced to follow the policies and procedures pertaining to education, law, economic, social and cultural aspects etc.

The Muslim world has got liberations from the non-Muslim powers and obtained new pace in the preceding century. They have shown commitment also to establish the golden rules and principles of Islam once again but it is also a fact that they are still lacking one collective smooth thinking which might be helpful in obtaining the best system as desired by Islam. The main reason of this continuous deviation is the inclusion of secular and non-Islamic thoughts in our generations and people along with the lacking of the ideal government structure.

It is a worth-mentioning fact that the gap between the government and public is still wide and continuing towards wider. Possible Strategy for the Best Practice If we want to get the fruits of zakat in a real sense, we have to formalize the effective strategy keeping in view our history and Islamic guidelines and also some other determinations in this respect.

Some of the possible steps that might be taken in this respect are as under that can build confidence and narrowing the gap among the Ummah at public and government level and provide track to achieve the best practicing model at both national and international level.

It is a tragic fact that some Muslims itself having a confusion of the applicability of the principles of Islamic Economics in the present era. The reason is that they have not studied well the Islamic theories and got higher degrees from the West. Due to this reason, we could not be practicing and following our real economic models that had been implemented and practiced in the era of our beloved Prophet Muhammad SAW and in the era of four caliphs.

It is amazing that we are still thinking and searching the ideal model like the West but do not think for a while that the ideal model with real experienced successful models are found in our history and literature. In our daily life; we observe that to implement a certain thing in an absolute sense, we must consider and fulfill other requirements as well that are interrelated to certain thing otherwise the certain implementation is quite ineffective.

When we talk about effective system of collection and distribution of zakat, we must admit that we must return to our actual heritage. It must be noted that poverty alleviation and effective collection and distribution cannot be possible as long as we would not change ourselves and would not consider in a true sense that what is our real situation and what should be our real situation?

Are we practicing Islam as we should? Obviously, the answer is in negative therefore we must try to change ourselves keeping in view the commandments and guidelines as laid down by Almighty Allah. It is amazing to note that the Muslim countries do not even declare themselves as Islamic countries even though they have a clear majority. What is the reason?

When we call ourselves as secular nation then in what sense and with what enthusiasm, we can design the best framework of the collection and distribution of zakat. We must consider the effect of such thinking upon our children and upon our people. It is very sorry to say that in Muslim countries, some parties want to implement Islam and some not. When we call ourselves Muslims then what is the logic behind the arguments towards the implementation of Islamic ideology in our countries.

It is very important to note that when a state or government does not represent itself a true Islamic picture, how the state claims itself the right of collection and distribution of zakat. It must be understood that the implementation of Islamic economic system is mandatory. The talking about the implementation of the best practices of zakat is only the one aspect of Islamic economic system. What about the other aspects?

We will get the real success only when the interest-based and immoral capitalist-based economy, in which everybody is selfish, will be abolished. It is a point of consideration that in the interest based selfish capitalist society, how we get the real fruits of zakat distribution.

Zakat is the crucial part of Islamic economics and social system and we must accept and implement Islamic economics as a whole and not only Islamic economics but Islam as a whole. Then, we will get the real fruits in every walk of life. When we go to implement the real Islamic economic system, we will be automatically implementing the best practice of collection and distribution of zakat, obtaining the confidence of the people and narrowing the gap between the government and people of the State.

Without the proper strategy in this respect, the zakat payer might get confused and they may not take out zakat properly from their assets. The lack of knowledge, in this respect, might cause problem in the effective collection of zakat from the people.

Keeping in view the present complex financial system, many issues have been arisen that are being addressed by our Shariah scholars and the books have also been written in this respect but it is also a fact that many people do not read books or cannot read books due to illiteracy therefore for these people, special sessions might be conducted in mosques, town halls etc.

The delivery of knowledge must include both the issues of payment of zakat and real practices as people might understand about responsibilities of certain parties in this respect. In this respect, shariah scholars might convince people to give zakat to the state as their zakat can be effectively utilized in a collective manner rather than giving zakat to the individuals. What is being taught in our schools, colleges and universities? As far as economics is concerned, we are still teaching western theories as a primary or main curriculum and Islamic Economics if included as a secondary section.

In this way; we, themselves, are approving the man-made theories and embracing them by heart and treat Islamic thoughts at the second level or even not included in the curriculum. It is affecting upon the thinking approach of our young generation. As zakat is the main part of Islamic economic system, the curriculum should be effective and updated with the passage of time. From this platform, the panel of shariah scholars may encourage people towards the payment of zakat on a collective level rather than individual level.

In this way, the comprehensive guidelines of zakat will be available in the context of prevalent complex financial system with the continued research and thought process. At this level, the best uniform procedures and guidelines may be formalized that will be following and implementing by all the Muslims and Muslim states in the world keeping in view the certain circumstances and conditions of their states or regions. It is a fact that continued research and thought process is mandatory within this rapidly changing world.

It is important to note here that in the era of Umar, the Second Khalifah-e-Rashid, Umar imposed the zakat on horses despite the fact that Prophet Muhammad SAW exempted horses from the payment of zakat. Umar imposed zakat keeping in view of the fact that the horses were being used for trade purposes in the era of Umar and not in the era of Prophet Muhammad SAW. Therefore, it is evident that the continued thought process is very important. In this case, even though that the organizations will be made under the direction and supervision of the government and administration of Central Zakat Organization but will work in the capacity of statutory organization.

The government must not intervene in the working and management of these organizations without any valid reason. In non- Muslim countries, these organizations can also be formed. The members of regional zakat organizations must be accompanied by prominent Shariah scholars as advisors for collection and distribution system of zakat. The Shariah scholars must present in both the central and regional zakat organizations.

With the above-mentioned set up, the issue of corruption or misdeed will be minimized or may come to an end so that people will make payment of zakat to these organizations with full confidence and peace of mind that their zakat will be utilized in a right manner under the supervision of right persons. The regional and central zakat organizations at the state level will get in contact with International Zakat Organization and keeping in view the social, political and economic circumstances of Muslim Ummah, they might decide to distribute the collected zakat in the best interest of the Ummah.

In this way, the environment might be built in which the whole Ummah will feel unity. In this way, the payment of zakat may be made one time by all Muslims. The month of Ramadan is the best month for this purpose in which the reward for good deeds from Almighty Allah is more than the other months. The uniform period will help a lot in order to minimize different complex issues and problems of Ummah as the zakat, all over the world, will be collecting and distributing at the same time in a year.

References Maulana Muhammad Riffat Qasmi.

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